"Whitewashing" is a term used to describe the adaptation of works of an originally ethnic origin to suit the perceived majority preference for Caucasian leads, Western settings, or both. This often occurs in adaptations of anime or manga works into films intended for American audiences. The name derives from whitewash, a cheap paint that could be quickly applied over many surfaces to give a uniform but short-term improvement in appearance.
|Year||Film||Actor/s & Role||Notes|
|1989||True Believer||James Woods as Eddie Dodd||
|1997||Starship Troopers||Casper Van Dien as Juan "Johnnie" Rico||Juan Rico is Filipino in the book, in the films Starship Troopers (1997) and Starship Troopers 3: Marauder (2008), John Rico is played by Casper Van Dien. A report in American Cinematographer around the film's release states the Heinlein novel was optioned well into the pre-production period of the film, which had a working title of Bug Hunt at Outpost Nine; most of the writing team reportedly were unaware of the novel at the time. According to the DVD commentary, Paul Verhoeven never finished reading the novel, claiming he read through the first few chapters and became both "bored and depressed."|
|2004||Legend of Earthsea||Shawn Ashmore as Ged||A loose adaptation of the award-winning Earthsea novels by Ursula K. Le Guin. It premiered as a two-night television event on the Sci-Fi Channel in December 2004. Le Guin was not involved in the development of the material or the making of the production and has written a number of responses to the mishandling of this adaptation of her works, including "A Whitewashed Earthsea" and "Frankenstein's Earthsea".|
- The Slanted Screen
- Racism in the United States
- Stereotypes of East and Southeast Asians in American media
- Laissez-Faire Racism
- Race movie
- Prasso, Sheridan. The Asian Mystique: dragon ladies, geisha girls, & our fantasies of the exotic orient.
- Robley, Les Paul (November 1997). "Interstellar Exterminators. Ornery insects threaten the galaxy in Starship Troopers". American Cinematographer (California, United States of America: American Society of Cinematographers) 78 (11): 56–66.
- Hollywood Chinese Hollywood Chinese, a 2007 documentary film about the portrayals of Chinese men and women in Hollywood productions.
- The Slanted Screen The Slanted Screen, a 2006 documentary film addressing the portrayals of Asian men in American television and film. Directed by Jeff Adachi.
- "A Certain Slant." by Robert B. Ito, Bright Lights Film Journal.
- Asian Images in Film Introduction.