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The Fairgrounds Park Riot was an event which occurred on June 21, 1949 in St. Louis, Missouri, USA. On that day, for the first time, African Americans were permitted to swim at the Fairgrounds Park Pool. While approximately forty African American children swam at the pool that afternoon, nearly 200 whites surrounded the pool fence. Violence broke out later that day as the swimmers left the pool. Several men, women and children of both races were hospitalized; however, no one was killed.

Following the riot, segregation was re-instituted and remained in effect for the next twelve months.

A federal court ruling in July 1950 by Judge Rubey M. Hulen mandated racial integration.

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