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The Burning Times
Directed by Donna Read
Produced by Mary Armstrong
Margaret Pettigrew
Studio D, National Film Board of Canada
Written by Erna Buffie
Starring Starhawk
Matthew Fox
Margot Adler
Irving Smith
Thea Jensen, Barbara Roberts
Music by Loreena McKennitt
Distributed by National Film Board of Canada
Release date(s) 1990
Running time 56 min., 13 sec.
Country Canada
Language English
Preceded by Goddess Remembered
Followed by Full Circle

The Burning Times is a 1990 Canadian documentary, presenting a feminist revisionist account of the Early Modern European witchcraft trials.[1] It was directed by Donna Read and written by Erna Buffie, and features interviews with feminist and Neopagan notables, such as Starhawk, Margot Adler, and Matthew Fox. The Burning Times is the second film in the National Film Board of Canada's Women and Spirituality series, following Goddess Remembered.

The opening and closing theme music, composed by Loreena McKennitt, was released as the track titled "Tango to Evora" on her album "The Visit".


Numbers of witches killed

In the film, Thea Jensen calls this period in history the "Women's Holocaust" and gives an estimate of a total of 9 million witches burned, admitting that this is a "high" estimate but quoting no alternative numbers.[1] Scholarly "high" estimates range around 100,000, with estimates around 60,000 more common.[2] The nine million figure has a notorious history of misattribution, and ultimately originates with a 1784 article by Gottfried Christian Voigt.[3]

Criticisms of the Church

The movie is inaccurate in other respects, placing Trier in France instead of Germany, dating a stone cross there that is recorded to have been erected in 958 AD to 1132 AD without further explanation. The cross is shown as a "symbol of a new religious cult that was sweeping across Europe," despite Christian presence since 286.[1] Robert Eady, a member of the Catholic Civil Rights League in Canada, has cited the film in a complaint to broadcast regulators, in particular mentioning offense at the movie's quote: "it took the Church two hundred years of terror and death to transform the image of paganism into devil worship, and folk culture into heresy."[1] Eady describes the documentary as propaganda intended to represent the Christian Church as "a wicked, patriarchal, misogynist institution"[1] Kapica adds "Women have genuine grievances with the Church. The Burning Times', however, is not going to help their cause."[1]

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Toronto Globe and Mail, June 12, 1991 "Religion" by Jack Kapica, "Review of The Burning Times" transcribed at retrieved on August 24, 2006
  2. See witchcraft trials: extrapolating from 12,000 attested executions, Brian Levac in The Witch Hunt in Early Modern Europe estimates 60,000 deaths, Anne Lewellyn Barstow in Witchcraze has 100,000 and Ronald Hutton in an unpublished essay "Counting the Witch Hunt" estimates 40,000 total executions.
  3. Adler has since admitted that the figure is untenable: "We now know that most persecutions of witches occurred during a 100-year period, between 1550 and 1650, and the total number hanged or burned probably did not exceed 40,000." [1] " serves no end to perpetuate the miscalculation; it's time to put away the exaggerated numbers forever." [2]

External links

  1. REDIRECT Template:Official website


Template:Witch Hunt Template:Witchcraft

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