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A school counselor is a counselor and an educator who works in elementary, middle, and high schools to provide academic, career, college access, and personal/social competencies to K-12 students. The interventions used include developmental school counseling curriculum lessons and annual planning for every student, and group and individual counseling.

Older, dated terms for the profession were "guidance counselor" or "educational counselor" but "school counselor" is preferred due to professional school counselors' advocating for every child's academic, career, and personal/social success in every elementary, middle, and high school (ASCA, 2005) [1]. In the Americas, Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Pacific, the terms school counselor, school guidance counselor, and guidance teacher are also used with the traditional emphasis career development [2]. Countries vary in how a school counseling program and school counseling program services are provided based on economics (funding for schools and school counseling programs), social capital (independent versus public schools), and School Counselor certification and credentialing movements in education departments, professional associations, and national and local legislation.[2]. The major accreditation body for Counselor Education/School Counseling programs is the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP), which provides international program accreditation in Counselor Education disciplines including school counseling [3].

In some countries, school counseling is provided by educational specialists (for example, Botswana, China, Finland, Israel, Malta, Nigeria, Romania, Taiwan, Turkey, United States). In other cases, school counseling is provided by classroom teachers who either have such duties added to their typical teaching load or teach only a limited load that also includes school counseling activities (for example- India, Japan, Mexico, South Korea, Zambia).[2]. The IAEVG focuses primarily on career development with some international school counseling articles and conference presentationss [2].


School counseling history

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Some elementary school counselors use books and other media to help their counseling


In Canada, most provinces [4] have adapted K-12 comprehensive school counseling programs similar to those initiated by [5] and adapted in the ASCA National Model [6]. School counselors reported in 2004 at the Canadian Counseling Association (CCA) conference in Winnipeg on issues such as budget cuts, lack of clarity about school counselor roles, high student to school counselor ratios, especially in elementary schools, and how using a comprehensive school counseling model helped to clarify school counselor roles with teachers and administrators and strengthen the profession [7].


In China,[8] discussed the main influences on school counseling as being Chinese philosophers Confucius and Lao-Tsu, who provided early models of child and adult development [9] that later influenced the work of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers [10]. China also developed mental testing over 3,000 years ago, which was used for civil service examinations initially and eventually adopted by the British in the mid-19th century [11] and later in the USA.

Only 15% of high school students are admitted to college in China, so the entrance exams are fiercely competitive and those who do enter university graduate at a rate of 99% [12]. Much pressure is put on children and adolescents to study and be able to attend college and this pressure is a central school counseling focus in China. An additional stressor is that there are not enough places for students to attend college, and over 1/3 of college graduates cannot find jobs [13], so career and employment counseling and development are central in school counseling.

There is a stigma related to personal or emotional problems and even though most universities and many schools now have counselors, there is a reluctance by many students to seek counseling for issues such as anxiety and depression. There is no national system of certifying school counselors. Most are trained in Western-developed cognitive methods including REBT, Rogerian, Family Systems, Behavior Modification, and Object Relations [14] and also recommend Chinese methods such as qi-gong (deep breathing), acupuncture, and music therapy [15].[8] shared that Chinese school counselors always work within a traditional Chinese world view of a community and family-based system that lessens the primacy of focus on the individual. In Hong Kong, Hui (2000) discussed work on moving toward comprehensive whole-school counseling programs and away from a remediation-style model [16].


In Finland, legislation has been passed in terms of the school counseling system. The Basic Education Act of 1998 states that every student must receive school counseling services. All Finnish school counselors must have a teaching certificate as well as master's degree in a specific subject and a specialized certificate in school counseling.


In Ireland, school counseling began in County Dublin in the 1960s and went countrywide in the 1970s. However, legislation in the early 1980s severely curtailed the movement due to budget constraints. The main organization for school counseling profession is the IGE or Institute of Guidance Counsellors, which has a code of ethics [17].


In Israel, a 2005 study by Erhard & Harel of 600 elementary, middle, and high school counselors found that a third of school counselors were delivering primarily traditional individual counseling services, about a third were delivering preventive classroom counseling curriculum lessons, and a third were delivering both individual counseling services and school counseling curriculum lessons in a more balanced or comprehensive developmental school counseling program; school counselor roles varied due to three elements: the school counselor's personal preferences, school level, and the principal's expectations.[18] Erhard & Harel stated that the profession in Israel, like many other countries, is transforming from various marginal and ancillary services to a comprehensive school counseling approach integral in the total school's education program.[18].


In Japan, school counseling is a very recent phenomenon with school counselors being introduced only in the mid-1990s and then often only part-time with a strong emphasis on assisting with behavioral issues [19].

South Korea

In South Korea, school counselors must teach a subject besides counseling, and not all school counselors are appointed to counseling positions, even though Korean law has required school counselors in all middle and high schools [20].


In Malta, school counseling services were begun in 1968 within the Department of Education based on recommendations from a UNESCO consultant and the titles: Education Officer, School Counsellor, and Guidance Teacher and through the 1990s they included school counselor positions in primary and trade schools in addition to secondary schools. Guidance teachers are mandated at a 1:300 teacher to student ratio.


In Nigeria, school counseling began in 1959 and exists in some high schools. It rarely exists at the elementary school level. Where there are federally funded secondary schools, there are some professionally trained school counselors. However, in many cases, there are only teachers who function as career masters/mistresses. School counselors often have teaching and other responsibilities that take time away from their school counseling tasks. The Counseling Association of Nigeria (CASSON) was formed in 1976 to promote the profession, but there is not yet a code of ethics. However, a certification/licensure board has been formed. Aluede, Adomeh, & Afen-Akpaida (2004) discussed the overreliance on textbooks from the USA and the need for school counselors in Nigeria to take a whole-school approach and lessen the focus on individual approaches and honor the traditional African world view that values the family and community's roles in decision-making as a paramount for effective decision-making in schools.[21].


In the Philippines, the Congress of the Philippines passed the Guidance and Counseling Act of 2004, with a very specific focus Professional Practice, Ethics, National Certification, and the creation of a Regulatory Body, and specialists in school counseling are subject to this law [22].


In Taiwan, school counseling traditionally was done by "guidance teachers." Recent advocacy on the part of the Chinese Guidance and Counseling Association pushed for licensure for school counselors in Taiwan's public schools. Prior to this time, the focus had been primarily on individual and group counseling with a focus on play therapy,[23] career counseling and development [24], and stress related to national university examinations.

United States

In the United States, the school counseling profession began with the vocational guidance movement at the beginning of the 20th century, now known as career development. Jesse B. Davis was the first to provide a systematic school guidance program. In 1907, he became the principal of a high school and encouraged the school English teachers to use compositions and lessons to relate career interests, develop character, and avoid behavioral problems. Many others during this time did the same. For example, in 1908, Frank Parsons, "Father of Vocational Guidance" established the Bureau of Vocational Guidance to assist young people in making the transition from school to work.

From the 1920s to the 1930s, school counseling and guidance grew because of the rise of progressive education in schools. This movement emphasized personal, social, moral development. Many schools reacted to this movement as anti-educational, saying that schools should teach only the fundamentals of education. This, combined with the economic hardship of the Great Depression, led to a decline in school counseling and guidance. In the 1940s, psychologists and counselors selected, recruited, and trained military personnel. This propelled the counseling movement in schools by providing ways to test students and meet their needs. Schools accepted these military tests openly. Also, Carl Rogers' emphasis on helping relationships during this time influenced the profession of school counseling.

In the 1950s the government established the Guidance and Personnel Services Section in the Division of State and Local School Systems. In 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik I. Out of concern that the Russians were winning the space race and that there were not enough scientists and mathematicians, the government passed the National Defense Education Act, spurring growth in vocational guidance through larger funding. In the 1960s, new legislation and professional developments refined the profession (Schmidt[25], 2003).

The 1960s was also a time of great federal funding for land grant colleges and universities in establishing Counselor Education programs [26]. School counseling shifted from an exclusive focus on career development to add personal and social issues paralleling the rise of social justice and civil rights movements. In the early 1970s, Dr. Norm Gysbers began shifting the profession from school counselors as solitary professionals into having a comprehensive developmental school counseling program for all students K-12 [6]. He and his colleagues' research evidenced strong correlations between fully implemented school counseling programs and student academic success; a critical part of the evidence base for the profession based on their work in the state of Missouri [27].

But school counseling in the 1980s and early 1990s was absent from educational reform efforts [28]. The profession was facing irrelevance as the standards-based educational movement gained strength with little evidence of systemic effectiveness for school counselors. In response,[29] consulted with elementary, middle, and high school counselors and created the ASCA National Standards for School Counseling with three core domains (Academic, Career, Personal/Social), nine standards, and specific competencies and indicators for K-12 students [6]. A year later, the first systemic meta-analysis of school counseling was published and gave a wake-up call to focus on outcome research in academic, career, and personal/social domains [30].

In the late 1990s, a former mathematics teacher, school counselor, and administrator, Pat Martin, was hired by The Education Trust [31] to focus the school counseling profession on closing the achievement gap that harmed children and adolescents of color, poor and working class children and adolescents, bilingual children and adolescents and children and adolescents with disabilities. Martin developed focus groups of K-12 students, parents, guardians, teachers, building leaders, and superintendents, and interviewed professors of School Counselor Education. She hired a school counselor educator from Oregon State University, Dr. Reese House, and they co-created what emerged in 2003 as the National Center for Transforming School Counseling (NCTSC).[32]

The NCTSC focused on both changing school counselor education at the graduate level and changing school counselor practice in local districts to teach school counselors how to prevent, intervene with, and close achievement and opportunity gaps. In the focus groups, they found what Hart & Jacobi [33] had indicated—-too many school counselors were gatekeepers for the status quo instead of advocates for the academic success of every child and adolescent. Too many school counselors used inequitable practices, supported inequitable school policies, and were unwilling to change.

This professional behavior kept many students from non-dominant backgrounds (i.e., students of color, poor and working class students, students with disabilities, and bilingual students) from getting the rigorous coursework and academic, career, and college access skills needed to successfully graduate from high school and pursue post-secondary options including college. They funded six $500,000 grants for six Counselor Education/School Counseling programs, with a special focus on rural and urban settings, to transform their school counseling programs to include a focus on teaching school counselor candidates advocacy, leadership, teaming and collaboration, equity assessment using data, and culturally competent program counseling and coordination in 1998 (Indiana State University, University of Georgia, University of West Georgia, University of California-Northridge, University of North Florida, and Lewis & Clark University) and then over 25 other Counselor Education/School Counseling programs joined as companion institutions in the following decade [31]. By 2008, NCTSC consultants had worked in over 100 school districts and major cities and rural areas to transform the work of school counselors.

In 2002, the American School Counselor Association released the ASCA National Model: A framework for school counseling programs, written by Dr. Trish Hatch and Dr. Judy Bowers, comprising key school counseling components into one model—the work of Drs. Norm Gysbers, Curly & Sharon Johnson, Robert Myrick, Carol Dahir & Cheri Campbell's ASCA National Standards, and the skill-based focus for closing gaps from the Education Trust's Pat Martin and Dr. Reese House into one document [6]. In 2003, the Center for School Counseling Outcome Research [34] was developed as a clearinghouse for evidence-based practice with regular research briefs disseminated and original research projects developed and implemented with founding director Dr. Jay Carey. One of the research fellows, Dr. Tim Poynton, developed the EZAnalyze [35] software program for all school counselors to use as free-ware to assist in using data-based interventions and decision-making.

In 2004, the ASCA Ethical Standards for School Counselors was revised to focus on issues of equity, closing gaps, and ensuring all K-12 students received access to a school counseling program [36]. Also in 2004, Pat Martin moved to the College Board and hired School Counselor Educator Dr. Vivian Lee. They developed an equity-focused entity on school counselors' role in college counseling, the National Office for School Counselor Advocacy (NOSCA) [37]. NOSCA has developed research scholarships for research on college counseling by K-12 school counselors and how it is taught in School Counselor Education programs. On January 1, 2006, the USA Congress declared the first week of February National School Counseling Week, which grew out of advocacy from ASCA members.

In 2008, the first NOSCA study was released by Dr. Jay Carey and colleagues focused on innovations in selected College Board "Inspiration Award" schools where school counselors collaborated inside and outside their schools for high college-going rates and strong college-going cultures in schools with large numbers of students of non-dominant backgrounds [38]. In 2008, ASCA released School Counseling Competencies focused on assisting school counseling programs to effectively implement the ASCA Model [36]. Also in 2008, in support of the ASCA Model and new vision[39] school counseling, Dr. Rita Schellenberg introduced standards blending as a cross-walking approach to align school counseling with the academic achievement mission of schools as well as two data-based reporting systems, SCORE and SCOPE.[40][41][42].

In 2009, NOSCA released a national study under the leadership of Dr. Vicki Brooks-McNamara addressing the school counselor/principal connection with specific recommendations for best practices in collaborative leadership in school counseling. In 2010, the Center for Excellence in School Counseling and Leadership (CESCAL) co-sponsored the first school counseling conference devoted to the needs of lesbian, bisexual, gay, and transgendered students in San Diego, California,[43].

Both the IAEVG and the Vanguard of Counsellors have been active in promoting school counseling internationally.[2].

School counselor roles, school counseling program framework, professional associations, and ethics

Professional school counselors ideally implement a [34] school counseling program that promotes and enhances student achievement.[6]. A framework for appropriate and inappropriate school counselor responsibilities and roles is outlined in the ASCA National Model [6]. School counselors, in most USA states, usually have a Master's degree in school counseling from a Counselor Education graduate program. In Canada, they must be licensed teachers with additional school counseling training and focus on academic, career, and personal/social issues. China requires at least three years of college experience. In Japan, school counselors were added in the mid-1990s, part-time, primarily focused on behavioral issues. In Taiwan, they are often teachers with recent legislation requiring school counseling licensure focused on individual and group counseling for academic, career, and personal issues. In Korea, school counselors are mandated in middle and high schools.

School counselors are employed in elementary, middle, and high schools, and in district supervisory settings and in counselor education faculty positions (usually with an earned Ph.D. in Counselor Education in the USA or related graduate doctorates abroad), and post-secondary settings doing academic, career, college readiness, and personal/social counseling, consultation, and program coordination. Their work includes a focus on developmental stages of student growth, including the needs, tasks, and student interests related to those stages(Schmidt[25], 2003).

Professional school counselors meet the needs of student in three basic domains: academic development, career development, and personal/social development (Dahir & Campbell, 1997; ASCA, 2005) with an increased emphasis on college access [44]. Knowledge, understanding and skill in these domains are developed through classroom instruction, appraisalTemplate:Dn, consultation, counseling, coordination, and collaboration. For example, in appraisal, school counselors may use a variety of personality and career assessment methods (such as the [45] or [46] (based on the [47]) to help students explore career and college needs and interests.

School counselor interventions include individual and group counseling for some students. For example, if a student's behavior is interfering with his or her achievement, the school counselor may observe that student in a class, provide consultation to teachers and other stakeholders to develop (with the student) a plan to address the behavioral issue(s), and then collaborate to implement and evaluate the plan. They also provide consultation services to family members such as college access, career development, parenting skills, study skills, child and adolescent development, and help with school-home transitions.

School counselor interventions for all students include annual academic/career/college access planning K-12 and leading classroom developmental lessons on academic, career/college, and personal/social topics. The topics of character education, diversity and multiculturalism (Portman, 2009), and school safety are important areas of focus for school counselors. Often school counselors will coordinate outside groups that wish to help with student needs such as academics, or coordinate a program that teaches about child abuse or drugs, through on-stage drama (Schmidt[25], 2003).

School counselors develop, implement, and evaluate school counseling programs that deliver academic, career, college access, and personal/social competencies to all students in their schools. For example, the ASCA National Model [6] includes the following four main areas:

  • Foundation - a written school counseling program mission statement, a beliefs and philosophy statement, and a focus on the ASCA standards and competencies and how they are implemented for every student;
  • Delivery System - how lessons and individual and group counseling are delivered;
  • Management System (use of calendars, time, building leader-school counselor role agreements, creation of action plans); and
  • Accountability System - use of a School Counseling program audit, results reports, and school counselor performance evaluations based on 13 key competencies.

The model is implemented using key skills from the Education Trust's Transforming School Counseling Initiative: Advocacy, Leadership, Teaming and Collaboration, and Systemic Change [31].

School Counselors around the world are affiliated with national and regional school counseling associations including: Asociacion Argentina de Counselors (AAC-Argentina), American Counseling Association (ACA-USA), African Counseling Association (AfCA), American School Counselor Association (ASCA-USA), Associacao Portuguesa de Psicoterapia centrada na Pessoa e de Counselling (APPCPC-Portugal), Australian Guidance and Counselling Association (AGCA), British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP-UK), Canadian Counseling Association (CCA)/Association Canadienne de Counseling (ACC), Center for Excellence in School Counseling and Leadership(CESCaL) (USA), Center for School Counseling Outcome Research (CSCOR-USA) Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP-USA and international), Counselling Children and Young People (BACP affiliate, UK), Counseling & Psychotherapy in Scotland (COSCA), Cypriot Association of School Guidance Counsellors (OELMEK), European Counseling Association (ECA), France Ministry of Education, Federacion Espanola de Orientacion y Psicopedagogia (FEOP-Spain), Department of Education-Malta, Hellenic Society of Counselling and Guidance (HESCOG-Greece), Hong Kong Association of Guidance Masters and Career Masters (HKAGMCM), Institute of Guidance Counselors (IGC) (Ireland), International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance (IAEVG)/Association Internationale d'Orientation Scolaire et Professionnelle (AIOSP)/ Internationale Vereinigung für Schul- und Berufsberatung (IVSBB)/Asociación Internacional para la Orientación Educativa y Profesional(AIOEP), International Baccalaureate (IB), International Vanguard of Counsellors (IVC), Kenya Association of Professional Counselors (KAPC), National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC, USA), National Center for Transforming School Counseling (NCTSC) at The Education Trust (USA), National Office for School Counselor Advocacy (NOSCA) at The College Board (USA), New Zealand Association of Counsellors/Te Roopu Kaiwhiriwhiri o Aotearoa (NZAC), Counseling Association of Nigeria (CASSON), Philippine Guidance and Counseling Association (PGCA), Overseas Association of College Admissions Counselors (OACAC, an affiliate of National Association of College Admissions Counselors-USA), Singapore Association for Counseling (SAC), and the Taiwan Guidance and Counseling Association (TGCA) [48].

School Counselors are expected to follow a professional code of ethics in many countries. For example, In the USA, they are the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) School Counselor Ethical Code [36] and the American Counseling Association (ACA) Code of Ethics [49].

Elementary school counseling

Elementary school counselors provide [28] academic, career, college access, and personal and social competencies and planning to all students, and individual and group counseling for some students and their families to meet the developmental needs of young children K-6 [6]. Transitions from pre-school to elementary school and from elementary school to middle school are an important focus for elementary school counselors. Increased emphasis is placed on accountability for closing achievement and opportunity gaps at the elementary level as more school counseling programs move to evidence-based work with data and specific results [50].

School counseling programs that deliver specific competencies to all students help to close achievement and opportunity gaps [51]. To facilitate individual and group school counseling interventions, school counselors use developmental, cognitive-behavioral, person-centered (Rogerian) listening and influencing skills, systemic, family, multicultural [52], narrative, and play therapy theories and techniques [53].[54] released a research study showing the effectiveness of elementary school counseling programs in Washington state.

Middle school counseling

Middle school counselors provide school counseling curriculum lessons[28] on academic, career, college access, and personal and social competencies, advising and academic/career/college access planning to all students and individual and group counseling for some students and their families to meet the needs of older children/early adolescents in grades 7 and 8.[6]

Middle School College Access curricula have been developed by The College Board to assist students and their families well before reaching high school. To facilitate the school counseling process, school counselors use theories and techniques including developmental, cognitive-behavioral, person-centered (Rogerian) listening and influencing skills, sytemic, family, multicultural,[52] narrative, and play therapy. Transitional issues to ensure successful transitions to high school are a key area including career exploration and assessment with seventh and eighth grade students.[55] Sink, Akos, Turnbull, & Mvududu released a study in 2008 confirming the effectiveness of middle school comprehensive school counseling programs in Washington state[56].

High school counseling

High school counselors provide [28] academic, career, college access, and personal and social competencies with developmental classroom lessons and planning to all students, and individual and group counseling for some students and their families to meet the developmental needs of adolescents [6]. Emphasis is on college access counseling at the early high school level as more school counseling programs move to evidence-based work with data and specific results [50] that show how school counseling programs help to close achievement and opportunity gaps ensuring all students have access to school counseling programs and early college access activities [57]. High School College Access curricula have been developed by The College Board to assist this process.

Transitional issues to ensure successful transitions to college, other post-secondary educational options, and careers are a key area.[58] The high school counselor helps students and their families prepare for post-secondary education including college and careers (e.g. college, careers) by engaging students and their families in accessing and evaluating accurate information on what the National Office for School Counselor Advocacy calls the 8 essential elements of college and career counseling: (1) College Aspirations, (2) Academic Planning for Career and College Readiness, (3) Enrichment and Extracurricular Engagement, (4) College and Career Exploration and Selection Processes, (5) College and Career Assessments, (6) College Affordability Planning, (7) College and Career Admission Processes, and (8) Transition from High School Graduation to College Enrollment. [59] Some students turn to private college admissions advisors but there is no research evidence that private college admissions advisors have any effectiveness in assisting students attain selective college admissions.

Lapan, Gysbers & Sun showed correlational evidence of the effectiveness of fully implemented school counseling programs on high school students' academic success [60]. Carey et al.'s 2008 study showed specific best practices from high school counselors raising college-going rates within a strong college-going environment in multiple USA-based high schools with large numbers of students of nondominant cultural identities.

Education and professional credentials including certification for school counselors

The education of school counselors (school counsellors) around the world varies based on the laws and cultures of countries and the historical influences of their educational and credentialing systems and professional identities related to who delivers academic, career, college readiness, and personal/social information, advising, curriculum, and counseling and related services.[2].

In Canada, school counselors must be certified teachers with additional school counseling training.

In China, there is no national certification or licensure system for school counselors.

Korea requires school counselors in all middle and high schools.[61]

In the Philippines, school counselors must be licensed with a master's degree in counseling.[62]

Taiwan instituted school counselor licensure for public schools (2006) through advocacy from the [63]

In the USA, a school counselor is a certified educator with a master's degree in school counseling (usually from a Counselor Education graduate program) with school counseling graduate training including qualifications and skills to address all students’ academic, career, college access and personal/social needs.

About half of all Counselor Education programs that offer school counseling are accredited by the Council on the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) and all are in the USA with one in Canada and one under review in Mexico as of 2010. CACREP maintains a current list of accredited programs and programs in the accreditation process on their website [64]. CACREP desires to accredit more international counseling university programs [64].

According to CACREP, an accredited school counseling program offers coursework in Professional Identity and Ethics, Human Development, Counseling Theories, Group Work, Career Counseling, Multicultural Counseling, Assessment, Research and Program Evaluation, and Clinical Coursework--a 100-hour practicum and a 600-hour internship under supervision of a school counseling faculty member and a certified school counselor site supervisor (CACREP[65], 2001).

When CACREP released the 2009 Standards, the accreditation process became performance-based including evidence of school counselor candidate learning outcomes. In addition, CACREP tightened the school counseling standards with specific evidence needed for how school counseling students receive education in foundations; counseling prevention and intervention; diversity and advocacy; assessment; research and evaluation; academic development; collaboration and consultation; and leadership in K-12 school counseling contexts.[66].

Certification practices for school counselors vary around the world. School counselors in the USA may opt for national certification through two different boards. The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) requires a two-to-three year process of performance based assessment, and demonstrate (in writing) content knowledge in human growth/development, diverse populations, school counseling programs, theories, data, and change and collaboration [67]. As of February, 2005, 30 states offer financial incentives for this certification.

Also in the USA, The National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC) requires passing the National Certified School Counselor Examination (NCSC), including 40 multiple choice questions and seven simulated cases assessing school counselors' abilities to make critical decisions. Additionally, a master's degree and three years of supervised experience are required. NBPTS also requires three years of experience, however a master's degree is not required, but only state certification (41 of 50 states require a master's degree). At least four states offer financial incentives for the NCSC certification [68]. Both certifications have benefits and costs that a school counselor would want to consider for national certification[69]. NBCC credentials counselors in the United States [70] and internationally [71] .

Job growth and earnings

The rate of job growth and earnings for school counselors depends on the country that one is employed in and how the school is funded--public or independent. School counselors working in international schools or "American" schools globally may find similar work environments and expectations to the USA. School counselor pay varies based on school counselor roles, identity, expectations, and legal and certification requirements and expectations of each country. According to the Occupational Outlook Handbook[72] (OOH) the median salary for school counselors in the USA in May 2006 was (USD) $53,750. In Australia, a survey by the Australian Guidance and Counseling Association found that school counselor salary ranged from (AUD) the high 50,000s to the mid 80,000s.

Among all counseling specialty areas, public elementary, middle and high school counselors are (2009) paid the highest salary on average of all counselors. Overall employment for counselors is average, especially in rural and urban areas. Budget cuts, however, have affected placement of public school counselors in Canada, Ireland and the United States in recent years. In the United States, rural areas and urban areas traditionally have been under-served by school counselors in public schools due to both funding shortages and often a lack of best practice models. With the advent of No Child Left Behind legislation in the USA and a mandate for school counselors to be working with data and showing evidence-based practice, school counselors able to show and share results in assisting to close gaps are in the best position to argue for increased school counseling resources and positions for their programs [6].


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  68. Mcleod, K. (March/April 2005). Certification by the books. ASCA School Counselor. Alexandria, VA: American School Counseling Association
  69. Schellenberg, R. (2008). The new school counselor: Strategies for universal academic achievement. Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield Education
  70. (
  71. (
  72. United States Bureau of Labor and Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook

Evidence- and research-based school counseling articles, books, DVDs

Abilities, Disabilities, Gifts, Talents, and Special Education in School Counseling

  • Bauman, S. S. M. (2010). School counselors and survivors of childhood cancer: Reconceptualizing and advancing the cure. Professional School Counseling 14, 156-164.
  • Marshak, L. E., Dandeneau, C. J., Prezant, F. P., & L'Amoreaux, N. A. (2009). The school counselor's guide to helping students with disabilities. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Milsom, A. (2007). Interventions to assist students with disabilities through school transitions. Professional School Counseling 10, 273-278.
  • Milsom, A. (2006). Creating positive school experiences for students with disabilities. Professional School Counseling 10, 66-72.
  • Milsom, A., & Dietz, L. (2009). Defining college readiness for students with learning disabilities: A Delphi study. Professional School Counseling 12, 315-323.
  • Peterson, J. S. (2006). Addressing counseling needs of gifted students. Professional School Counseling 10, 43-51.
  • Trolley, B. C., Haas, H. S., & Patti, D. C. (2009). The school counselor's guide to special education. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Academic Achievement Interventions, Closing Achievement Gaps

  • Bodenhorn, N., Wolfe, E. W., & Airen, O. E. (2010). School counselor program choice and self-efficacy: Relationship to achievement gap and equity. "Professional School Counseling 13," 165-174.
  • Brigman, G. A., & Campbell, C. (2003). Helping students improve academic achievement and school success behavior. Professional School Counseling 7, 91-98.
  • Brigman, G. A., Webb, L. D., & Campbell, C. (2007). Building skills for school success: Improving the academic and social competence of students. Professional School Counseling 10, 279-288.
  • Bruce, A. M., Getch, Y. Q., & Ziomek-Daigle, J. (2009). Closing the gap: A group counseling approach to improve test performance of African-American students. Professional School Counseling 12, 450-457.
  • Cholewa, B., & West-Olatunji, C. (2008). Exploring the relationship among cultural discontinuity, psychological distress, and academic achievement outcomes for low-income, culturally diverse students. "Professional School Counseling 12," 54-61.
  • Holcomb-McCoy, C. (2007). School counseling to close the achievement gap: A social justice framework for success. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Holcomb-McCoy, C. (2007). Transitioning to high school: Issues and challenges for African American students. Professional School Counseling 10, 253-260.
  • Johnson, R. S. (2002). Using data to close the achievement gap: How to measure equity in our schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
  • Miranda, A., Webb, L., Brigman, G., & Peluso, P. (2007). Student success skills: A promising program to close the aademic cachievment gaps of African American and Latino Students. Professional School Counseling 10, 490-497.
  • Poynton, T. A., Carlson, M. W., Hopper, J. A., & Carey, J. C. (2006). Evaluating the impact of an innovative approach to integrate conflict resolution into the academic curriculum on middle school students' academic achievement. Professional School Counseling 9, 190-196.
  • Schellenberg, R., & Grothaus, T. (2009). Promoting cultural responsiveness and closing the achievement gap with standards blending. Professional School Counseling 12, 440-449.
  • Schellenberg, R. (2008). The new school counselor: Strategies for universal academic achievement. Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield Education.
  • Sciarra, D. T. (2010). Predictive factors in intensive math course-taking in high school. "Professional School Counseling 13," 196-207.
  • Tucker, C., Dixon, A., & Griddine, K. (2010). Academically successful African American male urban high school students' experiencing of mattering to others at school. Professional School Counseling 14, 135-145.
  • Webb, L. D., & Brigman, G. A. (2006). Student success skills: Tools and strategies for improved academic and social outcomes. Professional School Counseling 10, 112-120.
  • West-Olatunji, C., Shure, L, Pringle, R., Adams, T., Lewis, D., & Cholewa, B. (2010). Exploring how school counselors position low-income African American girls as mathematics and science learners. "Professional School Counseling 13," 184-195.

Accountability; Evidence- and Data-Based School Counseling

  • Carey, J. C., Dimmitt, C., Hatch, T. A., Lapan, R. T., & Whiston, S. C. (2008). Report of the national panel for evidence-based school counseling: Outcome research coding protocol and evaluation of student success skills and second step. Professional School Counseling 11, 197-206.
  • Camizzi, E., Clark, M. A., Yacco, S., & Goodman, W. (2009). Becoming "difference makers": School-university collaboration to create, implement, and evaluate data-driven counseling interventions. Professional School Counseling 12, 471-479.
  • Dahir, C. A., & Stone, C. B. (2009). School counselor accountability: The path to social justice and systemic change. Journal of Counseling & Development 87, 12-20.
  • Dimmitt, C., Carey, J. C., & Hatch, T. (2007). Evidence-based school counseling: Making a difference with data-driven practices. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Hayes, R. L., Nelson, J.-L., Tabin, M., Pearson, G., & Worthy, C. (2002). Using school-wide data to advocate for student success. Professional School Counseling 6, 86-95.
  • Holcomb-McCoy, C., Gonzalez, I., & Johnston, G. (2009). School counselor dispositions as predictors of data usage. Professional School Counseling 12, 343-351
  • Isaacs, M. L. (2003). Data-driven decision-making: The engine of accountability. Professional School Counseling 6," 288-295.
  • Poynton, T. A. (2009). Evaluating the effectiveness of a professional development workshop to increase school counselors' use of data: The role of technology. Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision 1, 29-48.
  • Poynton, T. A., & Carey, J. C. (2006). An integrated model of data-based decision making for school counseling. Professional School Counseling 10, 121-130.
  • Sink, C. A. (2009). School counselors as accountability leaders: Another call for action. Professional School Counseling 13, 68-74.
  • Sink, C. A., & Spencer, L. R. (2005). My Class Inventory-Short Form as an accountability tool for elementary school counselors to measure classroom climate. Professional School Counseling 9, 37-48.
  • Stone, C. B., & Dahir, C. A. (2011). School counselor accountability: A MEASURE of student success (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
  • Young, A., & Kaffenberger, C. (2009). Making data work (2nd ed.) Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association

Advocacy, Empowerment, Equity, Social Justice

  • Bemak, F., & Chung, R. C.-Y. (2005). Advocacy as a critical role for urban school counselors: Working toward equity and social justice. Professional School Counseling 8, 196-202.
  • Hipolito-Delgado, C. P., & Lee, C. C. (2007). Empowerment theory for the professional school counselor: A manifesto for what really matters. Professional School Counseling 10, 327-332.
  • Ratts, M., DeKruyf, L., & Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2008). The ACA Advocacy Competencies: A social justice advocacy framework for professional school counselors. Professional School Counseling 11, 90-97.
  • Singh, A. A., Urbano, A., Haston, M., & McMahon, E. (2010). School counselors' strategies for social justice change: A grounded theory of what works in the real world. "Professional School Counseling 13," 135-145.
  • Smith, L., Davis, K., & Bhowmik, M. (2010). Youth participatory action research groups as school counseling interventions. Professional School Counseling 14, 174-182.
  • Studer, J. R. (2005). The professional school counselor: An advocate for students. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

ASCA Model & Standards; School Counseling Programs and Academic Success

  • Alberta Education, Special Education Branch (1995). From position to program: Building a comprehensive school guidance and counselling program: Planning and resource guide. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada: Author.
  • American School Counselor Association/Hatch, T. & Bowers, J. (2005). The ASCA National Model: A framework for school counseling programs, (2nd ed.) Alexandria, VA: Author.
  • Campbell, C. A., & Dahir, C. A. (1997). The national standards for school counseling programs. Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association.
  • Clemens, E. V., Carey, J. C., Harrington, K. M . (2010). The School Counseling Program Implementation Survey: Initial instrument development and exploratory factor analysis. Professional School Counseling 14, 125-134.
  • Corbin, D. S., & McNaughton, K. (2004). Perceived needs of educational administrators for student services offices in a Chinese context: School counselling programs addressing the needs of children and teachers. School Psychology International 25, 373-382.
  • Dahir, C. A., Burnham, J. J., & Stone, C. (2009). Listen to the voices: School counselors and comprehensive school counseling programs. Professional School Counseling 12, 182-192.
  • Dimmitt, C., & Carey, J. (2007). Using the ASCA National Model to facilitate school transitions. Professional School Counseling 10, 227-232.
  • Hatch, T., & Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2008). School counselor beliefs about ASCA National Model school counseling program components using the SCPCS. Professional School Counseling 12, 34-42.
  • Holcomb-McCoy, C., & Mitchell, N. (2005). A descriptive study of urban school counseling programs. Professional School Counseling 8, 203-209.
  • Johnson, S., & Johnson, C. D. (2003). Results-based guidance: A systems approach to student support programs. Professional School Counseling 6, 180-185.
  • Lapan, R. T. (2001). Results-based comprehensive guidance and counseling programs: A framework for planning and evaluation. Professional School Counseling 4.
  • Lapan, R. T., Gysbers, N. C., & Petroski, G. F. (2001). Helping seventh graders be safe and successful in school: A statewide study of comprehensive guidance and counseling programs. Journal of Counseling and Development 79," 320-330.
  • Lapan, R. T., Gysbers, N. C., & Sun, Y. (1997). The impact of more fully implemented guidance programs on the school experiences of high school students: A statewide evaluation study. Journal of Counseling and Development 75, 292-302.,
  • Lee, V. V., & Goodnough, G. E. (2011). Systemic, data-driven school counseling practice and programming for equity. In B. T. Erford, (Ed.)., "Transforming the school counseling profession." (pp. 129–153). Boston: Pearson.
  • MacDonald, G., & Sink, C. A. (1999). A qualitative developmental analysis of comprehensive guidance program in schools in the United States. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling 27, 415-430.
  • Martin, I., Carey, J., & DeCoster, K. (2009). A national study of the current status of state school counseling models. Professional School Counseling 12, 378-386.
  • Nova Scotia Department of Education. (2002). Comprehensive guidance and counselling program. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Author.
  • Paisley, P. O. (2001). Maintaining and enhancing the developmental focus in school counseling programs. Professional School Counseling 4, 271-277.
  • Perusse, R., & Goodnough, G. D. (2001). A comparison of existing school counselor program content with the Education Trust initiatives. Counselor Education and Supervision 41, 100-110.
  • Perusse, R., Goodnough, G. E., & Noel, C. J. (2001). Use of the national standards for school counseling programs in preparing school counselors. Professional School Counseling 5, 49-56.
  • Schellenberg, R. (2007). Standards blending: Aligning school counseling programs with school academic achievement missions. "Virginia Counselors Journal 29," 13-20.
  • Sink, C. A., & Stroh, H. R. (2003). Raising achievement test scores of early elementary school students through comprehensive school counseling programs. Professional School Counseling 6, 352-364.
  • Sink, C. A., Akos, P., Turnbull, R. J., & Mvududu, N. (2008). An investigation of comprehensive school counseling programs and academic achievement in Washington State middle schools. Professional School Counseling 12, 43-53.
  • Stevens, H., & Wilkerson, K. (2010). The developmental assets and ASCA's National Standards: A crosswalk review. "Professional School Counseling 13," 227-233.
  • Promoting Latino student achievement and development through the ASCA National Model. Professional School Counseling 10, 464-474.
  • Walsh, M. E., Barrett, J. G., DePaul, J. (2007). Day-to-day activities of school counselors: Alignment with new directions in the field and the ASCA National Model. Professional School Counseling 10, 370-378.

Bilingual School Counseling

  • Bruhn, R. A., Irby, B. J., Lou, M., Thweatt, W. T. III, & Lara-Alecio, R. (2005). A model for training bilingual school counselors. In J. Tinajero and V. Gonzales (Eds.), Review of research and practice, (pp. 145–161). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Smith-Adcock, S., Daniels, M. H., Lee, S. M., Villalba, J. A., & Indelicato, N. A. (2006). Culturally responsive school counseling for Hispanic/Latino students and families: The need for bilingual school counselors. Professional School Counseling 10, 92-101.

Career and College Access Counseling, Closing Opportunity & Attainment Gaps

  • Bryan, J., Holcomb-McCoy, C., Moore-Thomas, C, and Day-Vines, N. L. (2009). Who sees the school counselor for college information? A national study. Professional School Counseling 12, 280-291.
  • Chang, D. H. F. (2002). The past, present, and future of career counseling in Taiwan. Career Development Quarterly 50, 218-225.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., Saud Maxwell, K., & Bailey, D. F. (2009). Equity-based school counseling: Ensuring career and college readiness for every student. DVD. Hanover, MA: Microtraining Associates.
  • The College Board. (2008). Inspiration & innovation: Ten effective counseling practices from the College Board's Inspiration Award schools. Washington, D.C.: Author.
  • The College Board. (2010). The college counseling sourcebook: Advice and strategies from experienced school counselors. (7th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
  • Gibbons, M. M., & Borders, L. D. (2010). A measure of college-going self-efficacy for middle school students. "Professional School Counseling 13," 234-243.
  • Lee, S. M., Daniels, M. H., Puig, A., Newgent, R. A., & Nam, S. K. (2008). A data-based model to predict postsecondary educational attainment of low-socioeconomic-status students. Professional School Counseling 11, 306-316.
  • Marisco, M., & Getch, Y. Q. (2009). Transitioning Hispanic seniors from high school to college. Professional School Counseling 12, 458-462.
  • Ohrt, J. H., Lambie, G. W., & Ieva, K. P. (2009). Supporting Latino and African-American students in Advanced Placement courses: A school counseling program's approach. Professional School Counseling 13," 59-63.
  • Perna, L., Rowan-Kenyon, H., Thomas, S., Bell, A., Anderson, R., & Li, C. (2008). The role of college counseling in shaping college opportunity: Variations across high schools. Review of Higher Education 31, 131-159.
  • Sciarra, D. T., & Whitson, M. L. (2007). Predictive factors in postsecondary educational attainment among Latinos. Professional School Counseling 10, 307-316.

Counseling Theories in Schools

  • Perusse, R., and Goodnough, G. E., (Eds.). (2004). Leadership, advocacy, and direct service strategies for professional school counselors. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole/Cengage.
  • Shen, Y., & Herr, E. L. (2003). Perceptions of play therapy in Taiwan: The voices of school counselors and school counselor educators. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 25, 27-41.
  • Winslade, J. M., & Monk G. D. (2007). Narrative counseling in schools: Powerful and brief (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Cultural Competence, Ethnic/Racial Identity Development in School Counseling

  • Buser, J. K. (2010). American Indian adolescents and disordered eating. Professional School Counseling 14, 146-155.
  • Day-Vines, N. L., & Day-Hairston, B. O. (2005). Culturally congruent strategies for addressing the behavioral needs of urban African-American male adolescents. Professional School Counseling 8, 236-243.
  • Holcomb-McCoy, C. & Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2011). Culturally competent school counselors: Affirming diversity by challenging oppression. In B. T. Erford, (Ed). Transforming the school counseling profession. (3rd ed). (pp. 90–109). Boston: Pearson.
  • Malott, K. M., Alessandria, K. P., Kirkpatrick, M., & Carandang, J. (2009). Ethnic labeling in Mexican-origin youth: A qualitative assessment. Professional School Counseling 12, 352-364.
  • Portman, T. A. A. (2009). Faces of the future: School counselors as cultural mediators. Journal of Counseling & Development 87, 21-27.
  • Shen, Y.-J., & Lowing, R. J. (2007). School counselors' self-perceived Asian American counseling competence. Professional School Counseling 11, 69-71.
  • Shin, R. Q., Daly, B. P., & Vera, E. M. (2007). The relationships of peer norms, ethnic identity, and peer support to school engagement in urban youth. Professional School Counseling 10, 379-388.
  • Turner, S. L., Conkel, J. L., Reich, A. N., Trotter, M. J., & Slewart, J. J. Social skills efficacy and proactivity among Native American adolescents. Professional School Counseling 10, 189-194
  • Wyatt, S. (2009). The brotherhood: Empowering adolescent African-American males toward excellence. Professional School Counseling 12, 463-470.

Curriculum and Lesson Plans for School Counseling Programs

  • Perusse, R., & Goodnough, G. E., (Eds.). (2004). Leadership, advocacy, and direct service strategies for professional school counselors. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Effective School Counseling Practices and Evaluation

  • Camizzi, E., Clark, M. A., Yacco, S., & Goodman, W. (2009). Becoming 'difference makers': School-university collaboration to create, implement, and evaluate data-driven counseling interventions. Professional School Counseling 12, 471-479.
  • Dimmitt, C. (2009). Why evaluation matters: Determining effective school counseling practices. Professional School Counseling 12, 395-399.
  • Scarborough, J. L., & Culbreth, J. R. (2008). Examining discrepancies between actual and preferred practice of school counselors. Journal of Counseling & Development 86, 446-459.
  • Scarborough, J. L. (2005). The school counselor activity rating scale: An instrument for gathering process data. Professional School Counseling 8, 274-283.
  • Studer, J. R., Oberman, A. H., & Womack, R. H. (2006). Producing evidence to show counseling effectiveness in schools. Professional School Counseling 9, 385-391.
  • Whiston, S. C., & Aricak, T. (2008). Development and initial investigation of the School Counseling Program Evaluation Scale. Professional School Counseling 11, 253-261.

Ethics and Law in School Counseling

  • Stone, C. B., & Zirkel, P. A. (2010). School counselor advocacy: When law and ethics may collide. "Professional School Counseling 13," 244-247.
  • Stone, C. B. (2005). School counseling principles: Ethics and law. Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association.

Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender School Counseling

  • Bidell, M. P. (2005). The Sexual Orientation Counselor Competency Scale: Assessing attitudes, skills, and knowledge of counselors working with lesbian/gay/bisexual clients. Counselor Education and Supervision 44, 267–279.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2001). Counseling and advocacy with transgendered and gender-variant persons in schools and families. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education, and Development 40, 34-48.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., & Haley-Banez, L. (2000). Lesbian, bisexual, gay, and transgendered counseling in schools and families (1, 2). DVDs. Hanover, MA: Microtraining Associates.
  • Depaul, J., Walsh, M., E., & Dam, U. C. (2009). The role of school counselors in addressing sexual orientation in schools. Professional School Counseling 12, 300-308.
  • Goodrich, K. M., & Luke, M. (2009). LGBTQ responsive school counseling. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling 3, 113-127.
  • McFarland, W. P. (2001). The legal duty to protect gay and lesbian students from violence in school. Professional School Counseling 4, 171-179.
  • Satcher, J., & Leggett, M. (2007). Homonegativity among professional school counselors: An exploratory study. Professional School Counseling 11, 10-16.
  • Satcher, J., & Leggett, M. (2005). What to say when your student may be gay? A primer for school counselors. Alabama Counseling Association Journal 31, 44-52.
  • Smith, S. D., & Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2004). Leadership and advocacy strategies for lesbian, bisexual, gay, transgendered, and questioning (LBGTQ) students: Academic, career, and interpersonal success. In R. Perusse and G. E. Goodnough (Eds.), Leadership, advocacy, and direct service strategies for professional school counselors (pp. 187-221). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole/Cengage.
  • Varjas, K., Graybill, E., Mahan, W., Dew, B., Marshall, M., & Singh, A. (2007). Urban service providers' perspectives on school responses to gay, lesbian, and questioning students: An exploratory study. Professional School Counseling 11, 113-119.
  • Whitman, J. S., Horn, S. S., & Boyd, C. J. (2007). Activism in the schools: Providing LGBTQ affirmative training to school counselors. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health 11, 143-154.

Group Counseling

  • Brigman, G., & Early, B. (2001). Group counseling for school counselors: A practical guide. Portland, ME: Walch.
  • Paisley, P., & Milsom, A. (2007). Group work as an essential contribution to transforming school counseling. Journal for Specialists in Group Work 32, 9-17.
  • Steen, S., Bauman, S., & Smith, J. (2007). Professional school counselors and the practice of group work. Professional School Counseling 11, 72-80.
  • Steen, S., & Kaffenberger, C. J. (2007). Integrating academic interventions into small group counseling in elementary school. "Professional School Counseling 10," 516-519.

International School Counseling: History and Current Practice

  • Aluede, O. O., Adomeh, I. O. C., & Afen-Akpaida, J. E. (2004). Some thoughts about the future of guidance and counseling in Nigeria. Education Winter, 2004.
  • Ayyash-Abdo, H., Alamuddin, R., & Mukallid, S. (2010). School counseling in Lebanon: Past, present, and future. Journal of Counseling & Development 88, 13-17.
  • Dogan, S. (2002). The historical development of counseling in Turkey. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling 22, 57-67.
  • Erhard, R., & Harel, Y. (2005). International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 27, 87-98.
  • Hui, E. K. P. (2000). Guidance as a whole school approach in Hong Kong: From remediation to student development. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling 22, 69-82.
  • Iwuama, B. C. (1998). School counseling in Nigeria: Today and tomorrow. Journal of Educational Systems Research and Development 1, 8-18.
  • Jiang, G. R. (2007). The development of school counseling in the Chinese mainland. Journal of Basic Education 14" 65-82.
  • Lim, S.-L., Lim, B. K. H., Michael, R., Cai, R., & Schock, C. K. (2010). The trajectory of counseling in China: Past, present, and future trends. Journal of Counseling & Development 88, 4-8.
  • Maree, J. G., & van der Westhuizen, C. N. (2011). Professional counseling in South Africa: A landscape under construction. Journal of Counseling & Development 89, 105-111.
  • See, C. M., & Ng, K-M. (2010). Counseling in Malaysia: History, current status, and future trends. Journal of Counseling & Development 88, 18-22.
  • Stockton, R., & Guneri, O. Y. (2011). Counseling in Turkey: An evolving field. Journal of Counseling & Development 89, 98-104.
  • Stockton, R., Nitza, A., & Bhusumane, D.-B. (2010). The development of professional counseling in Botswana. Journal of Counseling & Development 88, 9-12.
  • Szilagyi, S., & Paredes, D. M. (2010). Professional counseling in Romania: An introduction. Journal of Counseling & Development 88, 23-27.
  • Thomason, T. C., & Qiong, X. (2007). School counseling in China Today. Journal of School Counseling, Downloaded from [1] June 19, 2009.

Leadership, Systemic Change, Educational Reform

  • Amatea, E., & Clark, M. (2005). Changing schools, changing counselors: A qualitative study of school administrators' conceptions of the school counselor role. Professional School Counseling 9, 16-27.
  • Beesley, D., & Frey, L. L. Principals' perceptions of school counselor roles and satisfaction with school counseling services. Journal of School Counseling 4, 1-27.
  • Bemak, F. (2000). Transforming the role of the counselor to provide leadership in educational reform through collaboration. Professional School Counseling 3, 323-331.
  • Clark, M., & Stone, C. (2001). School counselors and principals: Partners in support of academic achievement. National Association of Secondary Principals Bulletin 85, 46-53.
  • Clemens, E. V., Milsom, A., & Cashwell, C. S. (2009). Using leader-member exchange theory to examine principal-school counselor relationships, school counselors' roles, job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Professional School Counseling 13, 75-85.
  • Curry, J. R., & DeVoss, J. A. (2009). Introduction to special issue: The school counselor as leader. Professional School Counseling 13, 64-67.
  • Dahir, C. (2004). Supporting a nation of learners: The role of school counseling in educational reform. Journal of Counseling and Development 82, 344-364.
  • Devoss, J. A., & Andrews, M. F. (2006). School counselors as educational leaders. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin.
  • Dollarhide, C. T., Smith, A. T., & Lemberger, M. E. (2007). Critical incidents in the development of supportive principals: Facilitating school counselor-principal relationships. Professional School Counseling 10, 360-369.
  • Dodson, T. (2009). Advocacy and impact: A comparison of administrators' perceptions of the high school counselor role. Professional School Counseling 12, 480-487.
  • Ford, A., & Nelson, J. (2007). Secondary school counselors as educational leaders: Shifting perceptions of leadership. Journal of School Counseling 5, 1-27.
  • Gysbers, N. C. (2006). Improving school guidance and counseling practices through effective and sustained state leadership: A response to Miller. Professional School Counseling 9, 245-247.
  • Herr, E. L. (2001). The impact of national policies, economics, and school reform on comprehensive guidance programs. Professional School Counseling 4, 236-245.
  • Janson, C. (2009). High school counselors' views of their leadership behaviors: A Q methodology study. Professional School Counseling 13, 86-97.
  • Janson, C., Militello, M., & Kosine, N. (2008). Four views of the professional school counselor and principal relationship: A Q methodology study. Professional School Counseling 11, 353-361.
  • Janson, C., Stone, C., & Clark, M. A. (2009). Stretching leadership: A distributed perspective for school counselor leaders. Professional School Counseling 13, 98-106.
  • Johnson, J. , Rochkind, J., Ott, A., & DuPont, S. (2010). Can I get a little advice here? How an overstretched high school guidance system is undermining students' college aspirations. San Francisco: Public Agenda.
  • Kaplan, L. S. (1999). Hiring the best school counseling candidates to promote student achievement. NASSP Bulletin 83, 34-39.
  • Keys, S. G., & Lockhart, E. (2000). The school counselor's role in facilitating multisystemic change. Professional School Counseling 3," 101-107.
  • Kirchner, G., & Setchfield, M. (2005). School counselors' and school principals' perceptions of the school counselor's role. Education 126, 10-16.
  • Leuwerke, W. C., Walker, J., & Shi, Q. (2009). Informing principals: The impact of different types of information on principals' perceptions of professional school counselors. Professional School Counseling 12 263-271.
  • Mason, E. C. M., & McMahon, H. G. (2009). Leadership practices of school counselors. Professional School Counseling 13, 107-115.
  • McMahon, H. G., Mason, E. C. M., & Paisley, P. O. (2009). School counselor educators as educational leaders promoting systemic change. Professional School Counseling 13, 116-124.
  • Perusse, R., Goodnough, G. D., Donegan, J., & Jones, C. (2004). Perceptions of school counselors and school principals about the National Standards for School Counseling programs and the Transforming School Counseling Initiative. Professional School Counseling 7, 152-161.
  • Reynolds, S. E., & Hines, P. L. (2001). Guiding all kids: Systemic guidance for achievement-D. schools (2nd ed.). Bloomington, IN: American Student Achievement Institute.
  • Reynolds, S. E., & Hines, P. L. (2001). Vision-to-action: A step-by-step activity guide for systemic educational reform. (6th ed.). Bloomington, IN: American Student Achievement Institute.
  • Ross, D., & Herrington, D. (2006). A comparative study of pre-professional counselor/principal perceptions of the role of the school counselor in public schools. National Forum of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal 23, 1-18.
  • Saginak, K. A., & Dollarhide, C. T. (2006). Leadership with administration: Securing administrative support for transforming your program. Journal of School Counseling 4, 1-19.
  • Shillingford, M. A., & Lambie, G. W. (2010). Contribution of professional school counselors' values and leadership practices to their programmatic service delivery. "Professional School Counseling 13," 208-217.

Outcome Research

  • Brooks-McNamara, V., & Torres, D. (2008). The reflective school counselor's guide to practitioner research: Skills and strategies for successful inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Clark, M. A., Thompson, P., & Vialle, W. (2008). Examining the gender gap in educational outcomes in public education: Involving pre-service school counsellors and teachers in cross-cultural and interdisciplinary research. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling 30, 52-66.
  • Foster, L. H., Watson, T. S., Meeks, C., & Young, J. S. (2002). Single-subject research design for school counselors: Becoming an applied researcher. Professional School Counseling 6, 146-159.
  • Kaffenberger, C., & Davis, T. (2009). Introduction to special issue: A call for practitioner research. Professional School Counseling 12, 392-394.
  • Rowell, L. L. (2006). Action research and school counseling: Closing the gap between research and practice. Professional School Counseling 9, 376-384.
  • Whiston, S. C., Tai, W. L., Rahardja, D., & Eder, K. (2011). School counseling outcome: A meta-analytic examination of interventions. Journal of Counseling & Development 89, 37-55.
  • Whiston, S. C., & Sexton, T. L. (1998). A review of school counseling outcome research: Implications for practice. Journal of Counseling & Development 76, 412-426.

Personal/Social Interventions; Peer Mediation (Anxiety, Bullying, Conflict, Violence)

  • Burrow-Sanchez, J. J., Call, M. E., Zheng, R., & Drew, C. J. (2011). How school counselors can help prevent online victimization. Journal of Counseling & Development 89, 3-10.
  • Carney, J. V. (2008). Perceptions of bullying and associate trauma during adolescence. Professional School Counseling 11, 179-188.
  • Chibbaro, J. S. (2007). School counselors and the cyberbully: Interventions and implications. Professional School Counseling 11, 65-68.
  • Curtis, R., Van Horne, J. W., Robertson, P., & Karvonen, M. (2010). Outcomes of a school-wide positive behavioral support program. "Professional School Counseling 13, 159-164.
  • McAdams, C. R., & Schmidt, C. D. (2007). How to help a bully: Recommendations for counseling the proactive aggressor. Professional School Counseling 11, 120-128.
  • Rose, H., Miller, L, & Martinez, Y. (2009). "FRIENDS for Life": The results of a resilience-building, anxiety-prevention program in a Canadian elementary school. Professional School Counseling 12, 400-407.
  • Schellenberg, R., Parks-Savage, A., & Rehfuss, M. (2007). Reducing levels of elementary school violence with peer mediation. "Professional School Counseling 10," 475-481.
  • Vera, E. M., Shin, R. Q., Montgomery, G., Mildner, C., & Speight, S. L (2004). Conflict resolution, self-efficacy, self-control, and future orientation of urban adolescents. Professional School Counseling 8, 73-80.
  • Young, A., Hardy, V., Hamilton, C., Biernesser, K., Sun, L-L, & Niebergall, S. (2009). Empowering students: Using data to transform a bullying prevention and intervention program. Professional School Counseling 12, 413-420.

Poverty and Classism

  • Amatea, E. S., & West-Olatunji, C. A. (2007). Joining the conversation about educating our poorest children: Emerging leadership roles for school counselors in high-poverty schools Professional School Counseling 11, 81-89.
  • Gizir, C. A., & Aydin, G. (2009). Protective factors contributing to the academic resilience of students living in poverty in Turkey. Professional School Counseling 13, 38-49.
  • Van Velsor, P., & Orozco, G. L. (2007). Involving low-income parents in the schools: Communitycentric strategies for school counselors. Professional School Counseling 11, 17-24.

School-Family-Community Partnerships; Parenting Interventions for Academic Success

  • Bailey, D. F., & Bradbury-Bailey, M. E. (2010). Empowered youth programs: Partnerships for enhancing postsecondary outcomes of African American adolescents. Professional School Counseling 14, 64-74.
  • Bryan, J. (2005). Fostering educational resilience and academic achievement in urban schools through school-family-community partnerships. Professional School Counseling 8, 219-227.
  • Bryan, J. A., & Griffin, D. (2010). A multidimensional study of school-family-community partnership involvement: School, school counselor, and training factors. Professional School Counseling 14, 75-86.
  • Bryan, J., & Holcomb-McCoy, C. (2010). Collaboration and partnerships with families and communities. Professional School Counseling 14, ii-v.
  • Bryan, J., & Holcomb-McCoy, C. (2004). School counselors' perceptions of their involvement in school family community partnerships. Professional School Counseling 7, 162-171.
  • Dotson-Blake, K. P. (2010). Learning from each other: A portrait of family-school-community partnerships in the United States and Mexico. Professional School Counseling 14, 101-114.
  • Epstein, J. L., & Van Voorhis, F. L. (2010). School counselors' roles in developing partnerships with families and communities for student success. Professional School Counseling 14, 1-14.
  • Griffen, D., & Galassi, J. P. (2010). Parent perceptions of barriers to academic success in a rural middle school. Professional School Counseling 14, 87-100.
  • Griffen, D., & Steen, S. (2010). School-family-community partnerships: Applying Epstein's theory of the six types of involvement to school counselor practice. Professional School Counseling 14, 218-226.
  • Holcomb-McCoy, C. (2010). Involving low-income parents and parents of color in college readiness activities: An exploratory study. Professional School Counseling 14, 115-124.
  • Moore-Thomas, C., & Day-Vines, N. L. (2010). Culturally competent collaboration: School counselor collaboration with African American families and communities. Professional School Counseling 14, 53-63.
  • Sheely-Moore, A. I., & Bratton, S. C. (2010). A strengths-based parenting intervention with low-income African American families. Professional School Counseling 13, 175-183.
  • Steen, S., & Noguera, P. A. (2010). A broader and bolder approach to school reform: Expanded partnership roles for school counselors. Professional School Counseling 14, 42-52.
  • Suarez-Orozco, C., Onaga, M., & de Lardemelle, C. (2010). Promoting academic engagement among immigrant adolescents through school-family-community collaboration. "Professional School Counseling 14, 15-26.
  • Walker, J. M. T., Shenker, S., & Hoover-Dempsey, K. V. (2010). Why do parents become involved in their children's education? Implications for school counselors. Professional School Counseling 14, 27-41.

Supervision and School Counselor Education

  • Dixon, A. L., Tucker, C., & Clark, M. A. (2010). Integrating social justice advocacy with national standards of practice: Implications for school counselor education. Counselor Education & Supervision 50, 103-115.
  • Glosoff, H. L., & Durham, J. C. (2010). Using supervision to prepare social justice counseling advocates. Counselor Education & Supervision 50, 116-129.
  • Hayes, R., & Paisley, P. (2002). Transforming school counselor preparation programs. Theory into Practice 41, 170-176.
  • Murphy, S., & Kaffenberger, C. (2007). ASCA National Model: The foundation for supervision of practicum and internship students. Professional School Counseling 10, 289-296.
  • Paisley, P., & Hayes, R. (2003). School counseling in the academic domain: Transformation in preparation and practice. Professional School Counseling 6, 198-204.
  • Studer, J. R. (2006). Supervising the school counselor trainee: Guidelines for practice. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
  • Studer, J. R., & Oberman, A. (2006). The Use of the ASCA National Model in Supervision. Professional School Counseling 10, 82-87.

Technology and School Counseling

  • Milsom, A., & Bryant, J. (2006). School counseling departmental web sites: What message do we send? Professional School Counseling 10, 210-216.

Transforming School Counseling Roles and Professional Identity

  • Bodenhorn, N., & Skaggs, G. (2005). Development of the School Counselor Self-Efficacy Scale. Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling & Development, 38 14-28.
  • Burnham, J. J., & Jackson, M. (2000). School counselor roles: Discrepancies between actual practice and existing models. Professional school counseling 4, 41-49.
  • Clark, M. A., & Amatea, E. (2004). Teacher perceptions and expectations of school counselor contributions: Implications for program planning and training. Professional School Counseling 8, 132-140.
  • Hart, P. J., & Jacobi, M. (1992). From gatekeeper to advocate: Transforming the role of the school counselor. New York: College Entrance Examination Board.
  • Holcomb-McCoy, C., Bryan, J., & Rahill, S. (2002). Importance of the school counseling CACREP standards: School counselors' perceptions. Professional School Counseling 6, 112-119.
  • House, R. M., & Hayes, R. L. (2002). School counselors: Becoming key players in school reform. Professional School Counseling 5, 249-256.
  • House, R. M., & Martin, P. J. (1998). Advocating for better futures for all students: A new vision for school counselors. Education 119, 284-291.
  • Jackson, C. M., Snow, B. M., Boes, S. R., Phillips, P. L., Powell-Standard, R., & Painter, L. C. (2002). Inducting the transformed school counselor into the profession. Theory into Practice 41, 177-185.
  • Kurosawa, S. (2000). Sukuru kaunseringu katsudo no gohonbasira/Five important roles in school counselling. In M. Murayama (Ed.), Rinsyoshinrisi niyoru sukuru kaunsera: Jissai to tenbo (pp. 89–99). Tokyo, Shibundo.
  • Lambie, G. W., & Williamson, L. L. (2004). The challenge to change from guidance counseling to professional school counseling: A historical proposition. Professional School Counseling 8, 124-131.
  • Martin, P. J. (2002). Transforming school counseling: A national perspective. "Theory into Practice 41, 148-153.
  • Martin, P. J., & Robinson, S. G. (2011). Transforming the school counseling profession. In B. T. Erford, Ed., Transforming the school counseling profession (3rd ed). (pp. 1–18). Boston: Pearson.
  • Murayama, S. (2002). Rinsyoshinrisi niyoru sukuru maunsera no tenkai/The development of school counsellors by clinical psychologists. In M. Murayama (Ed.), Rinsyoshinrisi niyoru sukuru kaunsera: Jissai to tenbo (pp. 9–22). Tokyo: Shibundo.
  • Okamoto, J. (2002). Sukuru kaunsera tono renkei/Collaboration with school counsellors. In T. Matsuhara (Ed.), Sukuru kausera to renkei shita shido (pp. 4–13). Tokyo: Kyoikukaihatsukenkyusyo.
  • Paisley, P. O., & McMahon. G. (2001). School counseling for the 21st Century: Challenges and opportunities Professional School Counseling 5, 106-115.
  • Rale, A. D., & Adams, J. R. (2007). An exploration of 21st Century school counselors' daily work activities. Journal of School Counseling 5, 1-45.
  • Reiner, S. M., Colbert, R. D., & Perusse, R. (2009). Teacher perceptions of the professional school counselor role: A national study. Professional School Counseling 12, 324-332.
  • Scarborough, J. L. (2005). The school counselor activity rating scale: An instrument for gathering process data. Professional School Counseling 8, 274-283.
  • Stone, C. B., & Dahir, C. A. (2006). The transformed school counselor. Boston, MA: Lahaska Press/Houghton Mifflin.
  • Studer, J. R. (2008). The school counselor as an emerging professional in the Japanese educational system. International Education 37, 30-42.
  • Thomas, S. R. (2005). The school counselor alumni peer consultation group. Counselor Education & Supervision 45, 16-29.
  • Thomas, S. R., DeKruf, L., Hetherington, P., & Lesicko, D. (2009). Developing a global culture of collaboration for school counselors. Journal for International Counselor Education 1, 15-31.
  • Wilkerson, K., & Eschbach, L. (2009). Transformed school counseling: The impact of a graduate course on trainees' perceived readiness to develop comprehensive, data-driven programs. Professional School Counseling 13, 30-37.

See also

ar:إرشاد تربوي fr:Psychologue en orientation id:Konselor pendidikan he:ייעוץ חינוכי nl:Decaan (studieadviseur)

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