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The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) is a self-reporting questionnaire for assessment of personality disorders (Axis II of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) [1] introduced in 1993 by Lee Anna Clark. [2] It is not to be confused with SNAP-IV — the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale, rev. 4.[3]

Initially it was compiled from the DSM-III criteria. The questions are grouped into 15 scales. Twelve of them assess maladaptive personality: mistrust, self-harm, eccentric perceptions, aggression, manipulativeness, entitlement, detachment, exhibitionism, dependency, impulsivity, workaholism, propriety, and three assess rather broad traits: negative temperament, positive temperament, disinhibition, [4]

The convergence of SNAP with other independently developed tests, such as DAPP-BQ (Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology—Basic Questionnaire), are noted in literature.


  1. John M. Oldham, Andrew E. Skodol, Donna S. Bender (2005) "The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook Of Personality Disorders", ISBN 1585621595 , p. 96
  2. Clark, L. A. (1993). The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP). Minneapolis, MN : University of Minnesota Press.
  3. David Shaffer, Christopher P. Lucas, John Edward Richters (eds.) (1999) "Diagnostic Assessment in Child and Adolescent Psychopathology", ISBN 1572305029, p. 110
  4. W. John Livesley (1999) "Handbook of Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment", ISBN 1572306297 p. 24


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