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SMART Recovery (Self Management and Recovery Training) is an international non-profit organization which provides assistance to individuals seeking abstinence from addictive behaviors. The approach used is secular and science-based using non-confrontational motivational, behavioral and cognitive methods. Meeting participants learn recovery methods derived from evidence-based addiction treatments. [1]

Methodology

SMART Recovery is based on scientific knowledge, and is intended to evolve as scientific knowledge evolves.[2] The program uses principles of motivational interviewing found in Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET),[3] and techniques taken from Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), particularly in the version called Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), as well as scientifically validated research on treatment.[4]

The organization's program emphasizes four areas (called the Four Points) in the process of recovery: Building Motivation, Coping with Urges, Problem Solving, and Lifestyle Balance.[5] The "SMART Toolbox" is a collection of various MET, CBT and REBT methods (or "tools") which address the Four Points.[6]

The program does not use the twelve steps which make up the basis of the various "Anonymous" self-help groups (e.g. AA, NA, etc.) and is generally listed as an "Alternative to AA" or an "Alternative to the Twelve Steps."[7][8][9] Though listed as an "alternative", it is also suggested as a possible "supplement" to twelve-step programs in SMART Recovery's main program publication, The SMART Recovery Handbook.[10]

The Stages of Change as a SMART Recovery Tool

In the SMART Recovery program, there are seven stages of change:[11]

  1. Precontemplation - At this stage, the participant may not realize that they have a problem.[11]
  2. Contemplation - The participant evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of the addiction by performing a cost/benefit analysis.[11]
  3. Determination/Preparation - The participant completes a Change Plan Worksheet.[11]
  4. Action - The participant seeks out new ways of handling their addiction behavior. This can include self-help, the support of addiction help group or professional guidance.[11]
  5. Maintenance - After a few months, the participant's behavior has been changed and now seeks to maintain their gains.[11]
  6. Relapse - Although not inevitable, relapses are a normal part of the change cycle and if handled well, can serve a learning experience in overcoming an addiction.[11]
  7. Termination - Once a participant has sustained a long period of change, they may choose to move on with their lives and "graduate" from SMART Recovery.[11]

History and Organization

Incorporated in 1992 as the Alcohol and Drug Abuse Self-Help Network (ADASHN), the organization began operating under the SMART Recovery name in 1994.[12][13]

General operations are overseen by a volunteer Board of Directors.[14] Local groups are run by volunteers known as "Facilitators" with the assistance of volunteer recovery professionals called "Volunteer Advisors." A central office is currently maintained in Mentor, Ohio.

SMART Recovery offers its services are free although a donation is requested and its publications are sold.[15]

Meetings

The meetings are free for all wishing to attend, and are intended to be informational as well as supportive.[16] Approximately 600 weekly group meetings led by volunteer facilitators are held worldwide.[17] In addition, the organization provides online resources and support to the volunteers and those attending the groups and one or more daily online meetings.[18]

Meetings are also held in correctional facilities in many states including: Arizona, California, Florida, Indiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin.[19]

Family and Friends

Concerned Significant Others (CSO) is an online support group for family and friends of SMART Recovery participants which started in September 2010. Its purpose is to address specific issues encountered when a family member or friend tries to reach out and help a loved one. [20] It is similar to Al-Anon/Alateen.

Recognition

SMART is recognized by the American Academy of Family Physicians,[21] as well as the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)[22] and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA).[23] NIDA and NIAAA are agencies of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

See also

References

  1. "Religiosity and Participation in Self-Help Groups". The Walsh Group. 2007-10-17. http://www.jointogether.org/news/research/pressreleases/2007/religiosity-and-participation.html. Retrieved 2007-12-11.
  2. Steinberger, H. (2004). SMART Recovery Handbook. Mentor Ohio: Alcohol & Drug Abuse Self-Help Network,Inc.. pp. Section 1/Page5. ISBN 0-615-13135-2.
  3. Miller, W.R.; et al. (1995). "Motivational Enhancement Therapy Manual: A Clinical Research Guide for Therapists Treating Individuals With Alcohol Abuse and Dependence.". Project MATCH Monograph Series. National Institute of Health.
  4. Hester & Miller (2002). Handbook of Alcoholism Treatment Approaches: Effective Alternatives. University of Michigan: Allyn and Bacon. ISBN 0205360645.
  5. Shaw, BR; et al. (2005). Addiction & Recovery for Dummies. Wiley Publishing. pp. 176–177. ISBN 0764576259.
  6. Brooks, A.J.; Penn, P. E. (2003). "Comparing treatments for dual diagnosis: Twelve-Step and Self Management and Recovery Training". American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 29 (2): 359–383. doi:10.1081/ADA-120020519. PMID 12765211.
  7. Miller, W. R.; Kurtz, E. (1994). "Models of alcoholism used in treatment: Contrasting A.A. and other perspectives with which it is often confused". Journal of Studies on Alcohol 55 (2): 159–166. PMID 8189736.
  8. Volpicelli, Joseph; Maia Szalavitz (2000). Recovery Options: The Complete Guide. Wiley Publishing. pp. 149–151. ISBN 047134575X.
  9. "SMART Alternative Self-Help Groups Tackle Substance Abuse". Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. http://www.rwjf.org/reports/grr/027460s.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-12.
  10. Steinberger, H. (2004). SMART Recovery Handbook. Mentor Ohio: Alcohol & Drug Abuse Self-Help Network,Inc.. pp. Section 1/Page4. ISBN 0-615-13135-2.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 Steinberger, H. (2004). SMART Recovery Handbook. Mentor Ohio: Alcohol & Drug Abuse Self-Help Network,Inc.. pp. Section 2/Page8. ISBN 0-615-13135-2.
  12. Lemanski, Michael J. (2000). "Addiction Alternatives for Recovery". The Humanist. University of Michigan Health System. Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. http://archive.is/yflE. Retrieved 2007-12-12.
  13. Humphreys, Keith (2003). Circles of Recovery: Self-help Organizations for Addictions. Cambridge University Press. pp. 82–86. ISBN 0521792770.
  14. "Board of Directors 2007" (PDF). http://www.smartrecovery.org/resources/pdfs/bod2007c.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-12.
  15. Hovarth, A. Thomas (2004). SMART Recovery Handbook. Mentor Ohio: Alcohol & Drug Abuse Self-Help Network,Inc.. pp. Section 1/Page5. ISBN 0-615-13135-2.
  16. Shaw, BR; et al. (2005). Addiction & Recovery for Dummies. Wiley Publishing. pp. 176–177. ISBN 0764576259.
  17. "Source SMART Central office. This includes international groups in 7 countries.". http://www.smartrecovery.org. Retrieved 2010-09-24.
  18. "Online Meeting Schedule". http://www.smartrecovery.org/meetings/olschedule.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-29.
  19. "Source - SMART Central Office". http://www.smartrecovery.org. Retrieved 2007-12-12.
  20. For Family and Friends SMART Recovery website. Retrieved 2010-10-18.
  21. "Substance Abuse--How To Recognize It". American Family Physician 67 (7). 2003-04-01. http://www.aafp.org/afp/20030401/1535ph.html. Retrieved 2007-12-12.
  22. "Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide". National Institute on Drug Abuse. Archived from the original on 2007-09-10. http://web.archive.org/web/20070910224134/http://www.drugabuse.gov/PODAT/PODAT6.html#FAQ9. Retrieved 2007-12-12.
  23. "Alcohol and Drug Information". US Dept of Health and Human Services. https://ncadistore.samhsa.gov/catalog/referrals.aspx?topic=83&h=resources. Retrieved 2007-12-12.

Further reading

  • Brown JM. (1998) Self-Regulation and the Addictive Behaviors. in Treating Addictive Behaviors, 2nd ed. Miller WR & Heather N. eds. Plenum Press, NY. ISBN 0-306-45852-7
  • Ellis A. & Velten E. (1992) Rational Steps To Quitting Alcohol: When AA Doesn't Work For You. Barricade Books, NY. ISBN 0-942637-53-4
  • Gerstein J. (1998) Rational Recovery, SMART Recovery and non-twelve step recovery programs. In Principles Of Addiction Medicine, 2nd ed. American Society of Addiction Medicine, Chevy Chase ISBN 1-880425-08-4
  • Mattson ME. (1998) Finding the Right Approach. in Miller WR & Heather N. Treating Addictive Behaviors. 2nd ed. Plenum Press, NY. ISBN 0-306-45852-7
  • Myers PL. (2002) Beware of the Man of One Book: Processing Ideology in Addictions Education. J of Teaching in the Addictions. pp 1:69-90
  • Vuchinich RE & Tucker JA. (1998) Choice, Behavioral Economics, and Addictive Behavior Patterns. in Treating Addictive Behaviors ISBN 0-306-45852-7
  • Whittinghill D., et al. The benefits of a self-efficacy approach to substance abuse counseling in the era of managed care. J Addictions & Offender Counseling. 2000; 20:64-74
  • Brooks, A. J., & Penn, P. E. (2003). "Comparing treatments for dual diagnosis: Twelve-step and Self-Management and Recovery Training". American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 29 (2): 359–383. doi:10.1081/ADA-120020519. PMID 12765211.

External links

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