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File:Plaque1 Trail of Death, Battleground.JPG

Map of the trail route, the tribe left Twin Lakes, Indiana and arrive in Osawatomie, Kansas two months later.

The Potawatomi Trail of Death was the forced removal by United States forces from September 4 to November 4, 1838, of 859 members of the Potawatomi nation from Twin Lakes near Plymouth, Indiana, to the location of present-day Osawatomie, Kansas, a distance of Template:Convert/mi. Typhoid fever and the stress of the forced march led to the death of over 40 individuals, mostly children. Fr. Benjamin Marie Petit, who marched with his congregation of natives, died in St. Louis on February 10, 1839, as a result of the rigors of the journey.[1]

Background

In 1830, the Federal Government passed the Indian Removal Act. It was the intent of the government to remove the Indian population from the populated east to the remote and unpopulated lands west of the Mississippi.[2] The Act of 1830 specifically targeted the Five Civilized Tribes on Georgia and Tennessee, but also led to treaties being negotiated with the many other minor tribes east of the Mississippi.

The Potawatomi were the second major tribe to leave Indiana after white settlement began in the state. After the War of 1812, when the tribe had allied with the British against the Americans, the Potawatomi lived in relative peace with their white neighbors. The government of Indiana, however, was eager to open up the northern parts of the state for settlers and development.

Potawatomi of the Woods are those tribes living around the southern tip of Lake Michigan in Michigan and north central Indiana. In October, 1832 treaties were signed at Tippecanoe River north of Rochester,Indiana, which ceded most of their remaining lands in northwestern and north central Indiana. In exchange for their lands in the east, they were given lands in the west (Potawatomi County, Kansas) and annual annuities.[3][4]

Over the next 4 years, additional treaties were completed with the other Potawatomi to completely eliminate their titles from lands in Indiana. Unlike all the other chiefs, Chief Menominee and his band at Twin Lakes, Indiana, refused to sign the treaties.[1]

In 1836 the Potawatomi signed nine treaties, including the Treaty of Yellow River in Marshall County, five treaties on the Tippecanoe River north of Rochester, two treaties in Logansport, and one treaty at Turkey Creek in Kosciusko County. These treaties were called the Whiskey Treaties because whiskey was given to get the Indians to sign. In exchange for their land they were offered $1 per acre and each member of the tribe was granted a Template:Convert/acre parcel of land in Kansas. In exchange the tribe agreed to vacate their lands within two years.[5]

The deadline for the tribe to leave was August 5, 1838. By then some Potawatomi bands had migrated peacefully to their new lands in Kansas but not the Twin Lakes village of Chief Menominee. The village was near present day Plymouth, Indiana. After the deadline passed and the village refused to leave, Governor David Wallace ordered General John Tipton to mobilize the state militia in support of Colonel A. C. Pepper to remove the tribe forcibly.[6]

Removal

File:Trail of Death Warren County.png

Template:Center

On August 30, General Tipton and one hundred soldiers (actually volunteer militia) surrounded Twin Lakes and began to round up the natives, 859 in all. The Potawatomi's crops and homes were burned to discourage them from trying to return, and on September 4 the march to Kansas began. The state supplied a caravan of twenty-six wagons to help transport their goods. In the first day they traveled twenty-one miles and camped at the Tippecanoe River north of Rochester, Indiana. The second day they reached Mud Creek in Fulton County, Indiana where the first death occurred, a baby. By the third day they reached Logansport, Indiana. Several of the sick and elderly were left at Logansport to recover, and several of the dead were buried there. The route they were traveling was on the Michigan Road, a road their nation had granted the state permission to build only a few years earlier.[7]

On September 10 the march resumed from Logansport and the caravan moved along the north side of the Wabash River. They passed through present-day Pittsburg, Battle Ground, Lafayette, and Williamsport, with two or more deaths occurring nearly every day. Their last camp in Indiana was near the Gopher Hill Cemetery one and one-half miles from the Indiana - Illinois state line. On Sept. 16 the caravan crossed into Illinois, and camped at [Danville, Illinois] where four more Potawatomi died and were buried.[7] In Danville the caravan was joined by Father Benjamin Petit who kept a journal as he traveled with the tribe the rest of the way to help care for the sick. He wrote on September 16:

On Sunday, September 16, I came in sight of my Christians, under a burning noonday sun, amidst clouds of dust, marching in a line, surrouned by soldiers who were hurrying their steps.... Nearly all the children, weakened by the heat, had fallen into a state of complete languor and depression. I baptized several who were newly born -- happy Christians, who with their first step passed from earthly exile to the heavenly sojourn." .[7]

In a letter to Bishop Brute, Vincennse, Indiana, November 13, 1838, from the Osage River country of Missouri, Father Petit described the order of march.

"The order of march was as follows: the United States flag, carried by a dragoon; (mounted soldier) then one of the principal officers, next the staff baggage carts, then the carriage, which during the whole trip was kept for the use of the Indian chiefs, then one or two chiefs on horseback led a line of 250 to 300 horses ridden by men, women, children in single file, after the manner of savages. On the flanks of the line at equal distance from each other were the dragoons and volunteers, hastening the stragglers, often with severe gestures and bitter words. After this cavalry came a file of forty baggage wagons filled with luggage and Indians. The sick were lying in them, rudely jolted, under a canvas which, far from protecting them from the dust and heat, only deprived them of air, for they were as if buried under this burning canopy - several died."[8]

At Danville, Illinois they resupplied and rested, adding a couple of ox teams and wagons. There, on September 20, General Tipton and all but fifteen of the Hoosiers returned to Indiana and left the tribe under the control of Judge William Polke of Rochester, Indiana, the federal conductor. Polke led the Potawatomi the rest of the way to their new reservation. From Catlin (known as Sandusky Point, Illinois the tribe passed through Monticello, Decatur, Springfield, Jacksonville, Exeter,and Naples where they crossed the Illinois River on a ferry. On October 10 the tribe left Illinois at Quincy, crossing the Mississippi River on steam ferry boats, and crossed into Missouri.[7]

Marching through Missouri the tribe passed through West Quincy, Palmyra, Paris, Moberly, Huntsville, Salisbury, Keatsville (now spelled Keytesville), Brunswick, DeWitt, Carrollton, Richmond, crossed the Missouri River at Lexington, Wellington, Napoleon, near Buckner and Lake City,Independence, and Grand View. They crossed into Kansas Nov. 2 and camped at Oak Grove (probably Elm Grove because there is no Oak Grove here), then went on Nov. 3 to Bulltown (present Paola). On November 4 they reached the end of their journey, Osawatomie, Kansas, having traveled Template:Convert/mi. On arrival there were 756 Potawatomi left out of the 859 that started the journey. The difference between 859 Potawatomi who started out and the 756 who arrived in Kansas made some people think that 150 died, but many escaped.[7] Forty-two died.

Father Petit died two months after the march from illness, believed to be typhoid, brought on by exhaustion. Chief Menominee died three years later, never returning to Indiana. Many of the exiles did attempt to return to Indiana. Kansas named a county after the tribe and a reservation for Prairie Band Potawatomi is at Mayetta, Kansas.[7]

The March

Indiana

Plymouth From Thursday 30 August until Monday the 3rd of September, General Tipton was gathering the Potawatomi people together for removal at Twin Lakes southwest of modern day Plymouth, Indiana. He called for a meeting at Father Petit's chapel at the beginning, while the priest was in South Bend, and kept the Potawatomi men there as prisoners. He had Chief Menominee, Chief Black Wolf, and Chief Pepinawa placed in a jail wagon.[9] On his return from South Bend, Father Petit immediately began serving the needs of the sick and hearing the confessions of the Indians who escaped the round-up. Makkahtahmoway, the mother of Black Wolf, was extremely ill as she had taken refuge in the woods for six days when she heard the soldiers firing their rifles. She was only found by another Indian, who was looking for his horse. In the six days, all she had had to eat was a dead pheasant she had found. Her foot was wounded and she was unable to walk.[10]

A statue of Chief Menominee was erected in 1909 near Twin Lakes on S. Peach Road, Template:Convert/mi west of U. S. 31.[11] A boulder with a metal plaque marks the site of the log chapel and village.

Rochester

They passed through Chippeway Village on the Tippecanoe River two miles (3 km) north of Rochester on the Michigan Road (Old 31).[12] They marched down Rochester's Main Street on September 5, 1838. Descendants of Che-shaw-gen, Wamego, and Abram Burnett, erected the [13] A memorial to Father Benjamin M. Petit was erected at the Fulton County Museum by Tom Hamilton, a descendant of Abram Burnett, Shirley Willard, Indian Awareness Center of Fulton County Historical Society and Howard Kline, 1997</ref>

Logansport

For three days the group camped a half mile from Logansport. (Thursday 6th Sept. - Sunday 9th Sept.). Here those individuals who had been left at Chippeway returned to the group. The ill were cared for and four children died. Bishop Brute and Father Petit said Mass on Sunday. The local physicians report that 300 were ill.[9][10] Father Petit found the camp one of desolation. There were sick people and people dying in all directions. The heat has weakened most if not all of the children. A historical marker for Potawatomi Encampment on Trail of Death, was erected on grounds of Logansport Memorial Hospital, State Road 25, north edge of town.[14]

Delphi

There are three historical markers in Carroll County: The first is at Old Winnemac's Village on Towpath Road in rural Carroll County; it was the campsite for Sept. 10, 1838. The second is a commemoration "of the Trail of Death removal of Potawatomi and Miami Indians." It is a wooden sign erected in 1988 near the route of the march, northeast of Delphi, near the intersection of County Roads 800 West and 700 North. [15] The third is a metal sign on Pleasant Run north of Pittsburg near the intersection of County Roads 800 West and 550 North.[16]

Battle Ground

Plaque and map on boulder at Tippecanoe Battlefield Museum.[17]

Lafayette

The group moved along the route of County Road 500 North between Morehouse Road and 225 West just west of the Mt. Zion Church.[18]

A metal plaque attached to a boulder marks the campsite at LaGrange, a village that no longer exists, along the Wabash River at Tippecanoe - Warren county line.

Independence

The group passed through the area of Zachariah Cicott Park just north of town.[19]

Williamsport

The Trail of Death did not cross the Wabash River but zigzagged across Warren County.[20] There is a Trail of Death historical marker at Gopher Hill Cemetery.

Illinois

Sunday, 16th Sept. - 15 mi., camp by filthy stream near Indiana-Illinois state line. Young Indians allowed to go hunting. 2 small children died along the road.[21]

Danville

Catlin
Known as Sandusky Point in 1838,a historic marker has been erected in Catlin, Illinois, southwest of Danville in honor of those forcibly removed from Indiana.[22]

An historic marker identifies the Sandusky Point Encampment, September 17–19, 1838.[23]

Another Trail of Death marker ia at Davis Point near Homer, Illinois, campsite of Sept. 20.

Sidney

Friday 21st Sept. - 12 mil., Sidney, Ill, chief Muk-kose & a child died.[21]

On Friday, September 21 the caravan of people and wagons reached Sidney. Chief Muk-kose and a child died here.[9] On September 22, while at the Sadoris Grove encampment, three men were jailed for drunkenness.[24]

Monticello Monticello has two Trail of Death historical markers: 1. "Pyatt's Point" in 1838 diary, wooden sign on 100 block of Bridge Street, erected by Boy Scout Daniel Valentine in 1988. 2. Monticello City Cemetery on Railroad Street, erected by Boy Scout David Moody in 1998. After marching Template:Convert/mi they reached the Sangamon River near Pyatt’s Point. It was the Sunday 23 September. A child had died that morning and 29 persons were left in camps being too sick to travel. They encamped along the Sangamon River for two days. During that time, two more children died and an adult died. The sick from the camp of the 23rd rejoined the group. The men were allowed to go hunting for food.[9]

Sangamon River Crossing -Monday 24th - Tuesday 25th Sept. - 15 mi. Sangamon Crossing in Illinois. 2 children and 1 adult died. Indian men permitted to go hunting. Sick left in camp yesterday caught up.[21]

Trail of Death marker placed on corner of Dunbar and Caleb roads by Boy Scout Ryan Berg in 1993.

Decatur

Wednesday 26th Sept. - 14 mi., Decatur, Ill. The physician is sick. A child died after dark.[21] Historical marker is in Mueller Park.

Niantic or Long Point - Trail of Death marker in town park by water tower, erected in 2000 by Boy Scout Griffin Smith, sponsored by Gerald and Tom Wesaw families, Pokagon Potawatomi.

The men were promised tobacco if they mad a good appearance going through Springfield. Chief Ioway (I-o-weh) took charge of making everyone presentable. They were able to find plenty of food this day by foraging through the countryside. Overnight, two children had died.[9]

Springfield Two Trail of Death markers: 1. Oak Crest Road at golf course, erected by Springfield Chapter of Daughters of American Revolution, 1995. 2. Metal plaque placed at Old State Capitol Plaza on side of building going to parking garage by Pokagon Potawatomi in 2001.

Jacksonville

Two markers: Monday 1st Oct. 17 mi., Jacksonville, Ill. A child fell from wagon and was crushed by wheels, will probably die. Late at night the camp was complimented by serenade from Jacksonville Band.[21] Trail of Death marker is in Foreman Grove Park, East College Ave and Johnson Street, etrected 2001 by Native American Fellowship Council and Bill Norval, Peoria, Ill., and Morgan County Historical Society.

On the first of October, a Monday they reached Jacksonville, Illinois. A child had fallen from a wagon and was crushed under the wheels. While in Jacksonville, the local Band played a concert for them.[9]

Tuesday 2nd Oct. 16 mi. Marched into Jacksonville town square where presents of tobacco and pipes given to Indians by citizens. band played & escorted Indians. Trail of Death marker i town square, erectd 1993 by Morgan County Historical Society.

Exeter

Oct. 2 camped at Exeter.[21] Trail of Death marker in town park, erected 1993 by Mayor Roger Lovelace and Exeter people.

Naples

Wednesday 3d - Thursday 4th Oct.- 9 mi., Naples, Ill. Spent 9 hours ferrying Illinois River. Able to wash clothese & make mocasins. 2 children died.[21]

Quincy

Monday 8th - Wednesday 10th Oct. - 7 mi., Quincy, Illinois. Steam ferry across river, entered Missouri. 3 children died. Permission granted to remain in camp each succeeding Sabbath for devotional services (note: attended Mass at St. Boniface Catholic Church in Quincy.)[21]

For three days (Monday October 8 through Wednesday, October 10 the group was at Quincy, Illinois crossing the Mississippi River on a steam ferry. During this time, three children died. From here on, they were permitted to stay in camp on the Sabbath for devotional services. While in Quincy, they attended Mass at St. Boniface Catholic Church.[9]

Missouri

Palmyra

Paris

Huntsville

Keytesville

Carrollton

Lexington

Independence (Kansas City)

Grand View

Kansas

Paola

Osawatomie

It was November when about 750 Potawatomi arrived at Osawatomie, Kansas. Over half the deaths along the trail had been children. Father Petit who had volunteered to care for his congregation on the journey became ill on the Illinois River. He completed the journey, but returned to St. Louis where he died in February 1839. Some Potawatomi had escaped the dragnet of soldiers and remained in the east. Many went west on another removal in 1840. Some had fled to Michigan, where they became part of the Huron and Pokagon Potawatomi bands. The Potawatomi of the Woods or Mission Band remained in eastern Kansas for ten years. In 1848 they moved further west to St Marys, Kansas, close to the Prairie Band Potawatomi Reservation at Mayetta, Kansas. In 1861 the Potawatomi of the Woods Mission Band were offered a new treaty which gave them land in Oklahoma. Those who signed this traety became Citizen Band Potawatomi because they were given U.S. citizenship. Their headquarters today is at Shawnee, Oklahoma.

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Potawatomi History, 1998". http://www.tolatsga.org/pota.html. Retrieved 2008-07-28.
  2. "Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation". http://www.pbpindiantribe.com/tribal-history.aspx. Retrieved 2008-07-28.
  3. Treaty with the Potawatomi, October 20, 1832, proclaimed January 21, 1833
  4. Treaty with the Potawatomi, October 26, 1832, proclaimed January 21, 1833
  5. Funk, 45
  6. Funk, 46
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Funk, 47
  8. Letter from Benjamin Marie Petit, a priest and missionary to the Potawatomi
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 Douglas, Jesse C.. Diary of Jesse C. Douglas, Enrolling Agent under General Tipton, the United States' conductor.
  10. 10.0 10.1 “The Trail of Death, Letters of Benjamin Marie Petit” by Irving McKee, the Indiana Historical Society, v. 14 (1941), p. 97-101
  11. Chief Menominee Statue, State of Indiana
  12. a boulder with metal plaque was erected 1922 by Manitou Chapter of the Daughters of American Revolution
  13. Trail of Death memorial on Fulton County courthouse lawn, with Indian Awareness Center of Fulton County Historical Society
  14. by Cass County Historical Society, 1988.
  15. erected by Carroll County Historical Society
  16. Metal plaque, Boy Scout Kris Cannon, Troop 144. 1996
  17. Girl Scout Troop 219, 1996
  18. Metal sign on boulder, Tippecanoe County Historical Association, 1998
  19. Words cut into boulder, John Henry and Warren County Park board 1993
  20. Metal sign at Old Town Park on Main and Old 2nd, 1996, Phil High and Boy Scout Troop 344
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 21.6 21.7 Diary of Jesse C. Douglas, Enrolling Agent
  22. Historic Marker in Catlin, Paul Quick and Society of Indian Lore in 1993
  23. Bronze historic marker erected in 1993 by the descendents of the Potawatomi, North Paris Street, Catlin, Illinois
  24. http://www.usd116.org/mfoley/trail/sadoris.html

Sources

  • Funk, Arville (1963). Sketchbook of Indiana History. Indiana: Christian Book Press.
  • Robertson, Nellie Armstrong, and Riker, Dorothy (eds), The John Tipton Papers, V. III, 1834–1839, Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Bureau, 1942, Chapter V. August 7, 1838 - November 23, 1838. Removal of the Potawatomi, pp. 659–669.
  • Winger, Otho, The Potawatomi Indians, Elgin, IL: Elgin Press, 1939, pp. 43–53.

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