Oral sex is sexual activity involving the stimulation of the genitalia of a sex partner by the use of the mouth, tongue, teeth or throat. Cunnilingus refers to oral sex performed on females while fellatio and irrumatio refer to oral sex performed on males. Analingus refers to oral stimulation of a person's anus. Oral stimulation of other parts of the body (as in kissing and licking) is usually not considered oral sex.
Oral sex may be practiced by people of all sexual orientations. In heterosexual contexts, oral sex is used by some couples as a method of contraception and may be chosen as an alternative to sexual intercourse for this reason. Oral sexual activities are not necessarily effective methods of preventing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), although some forms of STD are believed to be less easily spread in this way. Oral sex has been recommended as a form of safer sex.
A report issued in September 2005 by the National Center for Health Statistics was the basis of an article in the September 26, 2005, issue of Time magazine. The report comes from the results of a computer-administered survey of over 12,000 Americans between the ages of 15 and 44, and states that over half the teenagers questioned have had oral sex. While some headlines have interpreted this as evidence that oral sex among teenagers is "on the rise," this was the first comprehensive study of its kind to examine the matter.
As with mutual masturbation and other forms of outercourse, many people do not consider oral sex to be "sex" in the same way as penetrative intercourse and regard it as "third base". Thus, for many people, oral sex can be seen as one way of experiencing sexual pleasure before losing one's virginity.
Facesitting is a form of oral sex in which the receiver sits on the giver's face and pushes into it with his or her genitals. Oral sex can be performed by both partners at the same time in the so-called "sixty-nine" position.
Spitting and/or swallowing of the ejaculatory fluids or giving a pearl necklace may cause different sexual stimulations.
Autofellatio is a possible but rare variant; autocunnilingus may also be possible for women with extremely flexible spines.
An act of group sex restricted to one woman giving oral sex to several men is referred to as a gangsuck, blowbang or lineup, all derivatives of the slang expression gang bang for group sex. Bukkake and gokkun may also involve oral sex, though not necessarily.
Cultural attitudes towards oral sex range from disgust to reverence: in Ancient Rome, fellatio was considered profoundly taboo, whereas in Chinese Taoism, cunnilingus is revered as a spiritually fulfilling practice that is believed to enhance longevity. In modern Western culture, oral sex is widely practiced among adolescents and adults.
Oral sex had been considered to be a taboo or at least frowned upon in many cultures and parts of the world. People give various reasons for this. Some say that this sexual act does not lead to procreation and is therefore not natural. Others claim that it is a humiliating and/or unclean practice (an opinion that is, at least in some cases, connected with the symbolism attached to different parts of the body). This has been more or less the case in Christian and Sub-Saharan African cultures, and Ancient Rome. Similar lines of reasoning have been espoused by some modern religious authorities in Islamic cultures.
It has been observed that animals of many species engage in oral sex. The desire to explore something with our mouths is very easy to observe as an intuitive and natural impulse. It has also been suggested that there is an evolutionary advantage due to the tendency of primates, non-primates and humans to have oral sex. There is some anthropological evidence for cunnilingus as a widespread activity amongst Australian aboriginals.
In pre-Christian Ancient Rome, sexual acts were generally seen through the prism of submission and control. This is apparent in the two Latin words for the act: irrumare (to penetrate orally), and fellare (to be penetrated orally). Under this system, it was considered to be abhorrent for a male to perform fellatio, since that would mean that he was penetrated (controlled), whereas receiving fellatio from a woman or another man of lower social status (such as a slave or debtor) was not humiliating. The Romans regarded oral sex as being far more shameful than, for example, anal sex — known practitioners were supposed to have foul breath and were often unwelcome as guests at a dinner table.
Chlamydia, human papillomavirus (HPV), gonorrhea, herpes, hepatitis (multiple strains), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)—including HIV—can be transmitted through oral sex. While the exact risk of transmitting HIV through oral sex is unknown, it is generally thought to be lower than other sex practices. The risk from most of these types of infection, however, is generally considered far less than that associated with vaginal or anal sex.
If the receiving partner has wounds or open sores on their genitals, or if the giving partner has wounds or open sores on or in their mouth, or bleeding gums, this poses an increased risk of STD transmission. Brushing the teeth, flossing, undergoing dental work, or eating crunchy foods such as chips relatively soon before or after giving oral sex can also increase the risk of transmission, because all of these activities can cause small scratches in the lining of the mouth. These wounds, even when they are microscopic, increase the chances of contracting STDs that can be transmitted orally under these conditions. Such contact can also lead to more mundane infections from common bacteria and viruses found in, around, and secreted from the genital regions.
In 2005, a research study at the College of Malmö in Sweden suggested that performing unprotected oral sex on a person infected with HPV might increase the risk of oral cancer. The study found that 36 percent of the cancer patients had HPV compared to only 1 percent of the healthy control group.
Another recent study suggests a correlation between oral sex and head and neck cancer. It is believed that this is due to the transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV), a virus that has been implicated in the majority of cervical cancers and which has been detected in throat cancer tissue in numerous studies. The New England Journal of Medicine study concluded that people who had one to five oral-sex partners in their lifetime had approximately a doubled risk of throat cancer compared with those who never engaged in this activity and those with more than five oral-sex partners had a 250% increased risk.
In the US, no barrier methods for use during oral sex have been evaluated as effective by the Food and Drug Administration. However, a barrier protection, like a condom or dental dam offer some protection from contact when practicing oral sex. Oral contact should be limited to the protected areas. A makeshift dental dam can be made out of a condom but using a real dental dam is preferable, because real dental dams are larger and the makeshift version may be accidentally poked with the scissors during the cutting procedure. Plastic wrap may also be used as a barrier during oral sex, but many find that the thickness of the plastic dulls sensation. Certain kinds of plastic wrap are manufactured with tiny holes to allow venting during microwaving, which may allow transmission of pathogens.
Oral sex (by means of fellatio) alone cannot result in pregnancy. There is no way for sperm from the penis to enter the uterus and Fallopian tubes to fertilize an egg. In humans, there is no connection between the gastrointestinal system and the reproductive tract. Ingested sperm will be killed and broken down by acid in the stomach and proteins in the small intestine. The breakdown products will be absorbed as a negligible quantity of nutrients.
Despite this, oral sex does carry a potential risk of pregnancy if semen from the man comes in contact with the vaginal area indirectly. This can occur if the semen in the ejaculate is carried on the fingers, hands, or other body parts; and comes in contact with the vaginal area. It is therefore still necessary to exercise caution when having oral sex to prevent pregnancy.
Terminology and slang
- Giving head – A common slang term for giving oral sex to either a man or woman is "giving head", from the term "head job" (in contrast to "hand job", manual stimulation). A play on the slang term "head" resulted in the slang term "brains", or "brain salad surgery", "domes" or "getting domes."
- Plate – A once common British rhyming slang for "fellate" that arose in the gay slang language of Polari that spread in the 1960s. The term is less common today.[dead link]
- Cunnilingus is also sometimes referred to as "muff diving", "eating out" or "poon-job", a slang term and a cunnilingus variant of "blow job", where "poon" is short for poontang or punani.
- Additionally, in lesbian culture several common slang terms used are "carpet munching", "giving lip", "lip service" or "tipping the velvet" (a faux-"Victorian" expression invented by novelist Sarah Waters).
Additional slang terms for oral sex include "going down on" (female and male), "licking out" (female), "blow job" (male), "dome" (female and male)", "sucking off" (male), "playing the skin flute" (male recipient), "rolling cigars" (male recipient), "lolly-gagging" (gay male-on-male), "gaining knowledge" (male recipient) and "bust down" (male).
- Anal–oral sex
- Deep-throating (sexual act)
- Eroto-comatose lucidity
- Erogenous zone
- Islamic views of oral sex
- Orgasm control
- Oral stimulation of nipples
- Sex magic
- Tea bag (sexual act)
- Venus Butterfly
- Geffen Testing Center's HIV, Syphilis, and Hepatitis C Information Sheet. Accessed November 4, 2006. Archived October 19, 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
- University Health Center, University of Georgia, Oral Sex. Accessed November 4, 2006
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- "The History of Fellatio", Salon.com, May 22, 2000.
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- Min Tan; Gareth Jones, Guangjian Zhu, Jianping Ye, Tiyu Hong, Shanyi Zhou, Shuyi Zhang, Libiao Zhang (October 28, 2009). "Fellatio by Fruit Bats Prolongs Copulation Time". PLoS ONE 4 (10): e7595. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007595. PMC 2762080. PMID 19862320. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0007595. Retrieved 11-08-2009.
- Spain. "Valencia". Oceanografico. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ros73m7xBRA&feature=player_embedded.
- Brooks, Cassandra (30). A Little Fellatio Goes a long way. ScienceNOW. http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2009/10/30-02.html. Retrieved July 24, 2010.
- Schidloff, B. (1935) "The Sexual Life of South Sea Natives"; in: R. Burton, ed. Venus Oceanica. New York: Oceanica Research Press; pp. 33–318; quoting p. 289"Cunnilingus is very wide-spread among all primitive peoples and from Kubary's reports on the Sonsolans, it can be seen that even the children are already prepared for this"
- University Health Center | Sexual Health | Oral Sex
- Campo J, Perea MA, del Romero J, Cano J, Hernando V, Bascones A (2006). "Oral transmission of HIV, reality or fiction? An update". Oral Dis 12 (3): 219–28. doi:10.1111/j.1601-0825.2005.01187.x. PMID 16700731.
- "Oral Sex Linked To Mouth Cancer Risk", MedIndia, November 20, 2005.
- D'Souza G, Kreimer AR, Viscidi R, et al. (2007). "Case-control study of human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal cancer". N. Engl. J. Med. 356 (19): 1944–56. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa065497. PMID 17494927. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=short&pmid=17494927&promo=ONFLNS19.
- Khamsi, Roxanne, "Oral sex can cause throat cancer", New Scientist, London, May 9, 2007.
- "HIV/AIDS among Women Who Have Sex With Women". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. October 17, 2006. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/women/resources/factsheets/wsw.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-20.
- "How to Make a Dental Dam Using a Condom", UCSB SexInfoOnline, February 7, 2008.
- "Your Most Embarrassing Sex Questions Answered". http://teenadvice.about.com/od/sexuallyactive/a/sillysexqa.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-10.
- Urban Dictionary: Dome – Many examples of the word "dome" being used to refer to oral sex
- Edwardes, Allen; Masters, Robert E. L. The cradle of erotica, New York: Julian Press, 1963.
- James N. Adams, The Latin Sexual Vocabulary (Johns Hopkins, 1990) ISBN 0-8018-2968-2
- Jacqueline Franklin, The Ultimate Kiss: Oral Lovemaking, A Sensual Guide for Couples (Los Angeles: Media Press, 2001) ISBN 0-917181-17-4
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- Health aspects
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