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On Narcissism was a 1914 book by Sigmund Freud, widely considered an introduction to Freud's theories of narcissism. In this paper, Freud sums up his earlier discussions on the subject of narcissism and considers its place in sexual development. Furthermore he looks at the deeper problems of the relation between the ego and external objects, drawing a new distinction between the 'ego-libido' and 'object-libido'. Most importantly he introduces the idea of the 'ego-ideal', and the self- observing agency related to it. Freud also looks briefly at his controversies with Jung and Adler, indeed one of his motives for writing this was probably to show that the concept of narcissism offers an alternative to Jung's non-sexual 'libido' and Adler's 'masculine protest'.