IMPORTANT:This page has used Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia in either a refactored, modified, abridged, expanded, built on or 'straight from' text content! (view authors)


Mormonism, throughout much of its history, has had a relationship with violence.[1] Many religious institutions have histories where violence has been used by the church as well as against it.[2] The effect of this violence has had an impact on the history of the Latter Day Saint movement and its doctrines.[3]

Overview

In the early history of the United States, violence was used as a form of control. Many people of different faiths were harassed and persecuted because of differences in religious beliefs. The Latter Day Saints found themselves in this situation after the founding of their church, which eventually led to the murder of church founder and leader Joseph Smith, Jr. In return, there were years when the church justified violence against others.

Capital punishment

Capital punishment in Mormon scripture

Religious justification for capital punishment is not unique to Mormonism Template:Harv. Like the Bible, the Book of Mormon has passages that speak favorably about capital punishment. The book described a theocratic government with a law that "if a man murdered he should die" (Alma 42:19; see also 2 Nephi 9:35; Alma 27:6-9). Nevertheless, the Book of Mormon did not always require capital punishment and never indicated that capital punishment was a requirement to atone for sins. The Book of Mormon provided an example where God (and the government) forgave "many murders" after repentance, "through the merits of [God's] Son" (Alma 24:10). The book also stated that murderers could avoid an "awful hell" if they "repent and withdraw [their] murderous purposes" (Alma 54:7).

Mormonism teaches that in some situations, the blood of a slain righteous person "cries out" for retribution, an idea that finds several examples in Mormon scripture. In the Bible, for example, the blood of Abel ascended to the ears of God after he was killed by Cain (Genesis 4:10). In the Book of Mormon, the "blood of a righteous man" (Gideon) was said to "come upon" the theocratic leader Alma "for vengeance" against the murderer (Nehor) (Alma 1:13). Mormon scripture also refers to the "cry" of the blood of the saints ascending from the ground up to the ears of God as a testimony against those who killed them (2 Ne. 26: 3; D&C 88:6).

The need for vengeance is sometimes seen as a justification for capital punishment.

Though Mormonism generally does not condone vigilante retribution, there are circumstances in which vengeance is authorized, such as when the government is unresponsive to an injustice:

  • Missouri revelation: forgive three times, then the Lord delivers them into your hands.[citation needed]

Retribution

File:GeneralJosephSmithAddress-JohnHafen.jpg

Joseph Smith, Jr. did not teach blood atonement, but taught a "blood for blood" law of God's retribution, stating that if he could enact a death penalty law, "I am opposed to hanging, even if a man kill another, I will shoot him, or cut off his head, spill his blood on the ground and let the smoke ascend thereof up to God..." Template:Harv.

Joseph Smith, Jr., the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, was a strong proponent of capital punishment, and favored execution methods that involved the shedding of blood as retribution for crimes of bloodshed. In 1843, he or his scribe commented that the common execution method in Christian nations was hanging, "instead of blood for blood according to the law of heaven."[4] In a March 4, 1843 debate with church leader George A. Smith, who argued against capital punishment,[5] Smith said that if he ever had the opportunity to enact a death penalty law, he "was opposed to hanging" the convict; rather, he would "shoot him, or cut off his head, spill his blood on the ground, and let the smoke thereof ascend up to God" Template:Harv. In the church's April 6, 1843 general conference, Smith said he would "wring a thief's neck off if I can find him. if I cannot bring him to justice any other way."[6] Sidney Rigdon, Smith's counselor in the First Presidency, also supported capital punishment involving the spilling of blood, stating, "There are men standing in your midst that you cant do anything with them but cut their throat & bury them".[7] On the other hand, Smith was willing to tolerate the presence of men "as corrupt as the devil himself" in Nauvoo, Illinois, who "had been guilty of murder and robbery", in the chance that they might "come to the waters of baptism through repentance, and redeem a part of their allotted time" Template:Harv.

Brigham Young, Smith's successor in the LDS Church, initially held views on capital punishment similar to those of Smith. On January 27, 1845, he spoke approvingly of Smith's toleration of "corrupt men" in Nauvoo who were guilty of murder and robbery, on the chance that they might repent and be baptized Template:Harv. On the other hand, on February 25, 1846, after the Saints had left Nauvoo, Young threatened adherents who had stolen wagon cover strings and rail timber with having their throats cut "when they get out of the settlements where his orders could be executed" Template:Harv. Later that year, Young gave orders that "when a man is found to be a thief,...cut his throat & thro'Template:Sic him in the River".[8] Young also stated that decapitation of repeated sinners "is the law of God & it shall be executed".[9] There are no documented instances, however, of such a sentence being carried out on the Mormon Trail.

In the Salt Lake Valley, Young acted as the executive authority while the Council of Fifty acted as a legislature. One of his main concerns in the early Mormon settlement was theft, and he swore that "a thiefTemplate:Sic should not live in the Valley, for he would cut off their heads or be the means of haveingTemplate:Sic it done as the Lord lived."[10] A Mormon listening to one of Young's sermons in 1849 recorded that he said "if any one was catchedTemplate:Sic stealing to shoot them dead on the spot and they should not be hurt for it."[11]

In Utah, there existed a law from 1851 to 1888 allowing persons convicted of murder to be executed by decapitation Template:Harv.

Blood atonement

Blood atonement is the controversial concept that there are certain sins to which the atonement of Jesus does not apply, and that before a Mormon who has committed these sins can achieve the highest degree of salvation, he or she must personally atone for the sin by "hav[ing] their blood spilt upon the ground, that the smoke thereof might ascend to heaven as an offering for their sins" Template:Harv. Blood atonement was to be voluntary by the sinner, or was contemplated as being mandatory in a theoretical theocracy planned for the Utah Territory, but was to be carried out with love and compassion for the sinner, not out of vengeance Template:Harv. The concept was first taught in the mid-1850s by the First Presidency of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) during the Mormon Reformation when Brigham Young governed the Utah Territory as a near-theocracy. Even though there was discussion about implementing the doctrine, there is no direct evidence that it was ever practiced by the Mormon leadership in their capacity as leaders of both church and state Template:Harv. There is inconclusive evidence, however, suggesting that the doctrine was enforced independently a few times by Mormon individuals Template:Harv. Scholars have also argued that the doctrine contributed to a culture of violence that, combined with paranoia from the Church's long history of being persecuted, incited several extra-judicial killings by Mormons, including the Mountain Meadows massacre Template:Harv.

LDS Church leaders taught the concept of blood atonement well into the 20th century within the context of government-sanctioned capital punishment, and it was responsible for laws in the state of Utah allowing for execution by firing squad (Salt Lake Tribune, 11/5/94, p. D1). Although the LDS Church repudiated the teaching in 1978, it still has adherents within the LDS Church and within Mormon fundamentalism, a branch of the Latter Day Saint movement not affiliated with the LDS Church that seeks to follow early Mormon teachings to the letter. Despite repudiation by the LDS Church, the concept also survives in Mormon culture, particularly in regards to capital crimes.[12] In 1994, when the defense in the trial of James Edward Wood alleged that a local church leader had "talked to [Wood] about shedding his own blood," the LDS First Presidency submitted a document to the court that denied the church's acceptance and practice of such a doctrine, and included the 1978 repudiation.[13]

Penalties

Endowment penalties

The original Nauvoo Endowment ceremony contained "penalties" for breaking a covenant not to reveal certain names and gestures given as part of the ceremony. These penalties consisted of oaths made while enacting gestures representing four ways in which a person's life could be taken—one each for the first three sacred "tokens" (handshakes) and their accompanying names and signs. In 1990, without official comment, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints removed these penalties from their version of the Endowment, together with some other elements of the ceremony that had been considered controversial.

Being "destroyed in the flesh" for violation of celestial marriage covenants

The most immediate precursor to the blood atonement doctrine stems from a controversial section of Mormon scripture dictated by Smith in 1843 commanding the practice of plural marriage (D&C 132). This revelation stated that once a man and a woman enter the "New and Everlasting Covenant" (a celestial marriage), and it is "sealed unto them by the Holy Spirit of promise" (which Smith later taught was accomplished through the second anointing ritual), that they are guaranteed to become gods in the afterlife no matter what sins or blasphemies they commit, so long as they "commit no murder whereby to shed innocent blood", and they do not commit the unpardonable sin of "blasphemy against the Holy Ghost". If a sealed person shed innocent blood, they would suffer the fate of David, who was redeemed, but fell short of his exaltation, and did not become a god (D&C 132:39). If a sealed person committed the unpardonable sin, they would become a son of perdition. According to early Mormon teachings, the unpardonable sin consisted of entering the New and Everlasting Covenant, and then falling away to become an "apostate".

However, if a sealed and anointed person broke their covenants to any extent short of murder or the unpardonable sin, they would still gain their exaltation and become gods and goddesses in the afterlife, but would be "destroyed in the flesh, and shall be delivered unto the buffetings of Satan unto the day of redemption" (D&C 132:26). The revelation did not, however, specify the mechanism by which such people would be "destroyed in the flesh", and it did not indicate whether that "redemption" would be the result of the sinner's own blood or the atonement of Jesus.

Oath of vengeance against the United States for killing "the prophets"

After the death of Joseph Smith, Jr., Brigham Young added an Oath of vengeance to the Nauvoo Endowment ritual. Participants in the ritual made an oath to pray that God would "avenge the blood of the prophets on this nation" Template:Harv. "The prophets" were Joseph and Hyrum Smith, and "this nation" was the United States Template:Harv. This oath was removed from the ceremony during the 1920s Template:Harv. In 1877, Brigham Young noted what he viewed as a similarity between Joseph Smith's death and the blood atonement doctrine, in that "whether we believe in blood atonement or not", Joseph and other prophets "sealed their testimony with their blood".[14]

Theological violence

Mountain Meadows massacre

The Mountain Meadows massacre of September 11, 1857 was widely blamed on the church's teachings of blood atonement and other anti-United States rhetoric by LDS Church leaders during the Utah War.[citation needed] The widely-publicized massacre was a mass killing of Arkansan emigrants by a Mormon militia led by prominent Mormon leader John D. Lee, who was later executed for his role in the killings. After escalating rumors that some of the emigrants had participated in early Mormon persecution, the militia conducted a siege, and when the emigrants surrendered, the militia killed men, women, and children in cold blood, adopted some of the surviving children, and attempted a cover-up.

Though widely connected with the blood atonement doctrine by the United States press and general public, there is no direct evidence that the massacre was related to "saving" the emigrants by the shedding of their blood (as they had not entered into Mormon covenants); rather, most commentators view it as an act of intended retribution. Young was accused with either directing the massacre, or with complicity after the fact. However, when Brigham Young was interviewed on the matter and asked if he believed in blood atonement, he replied, "I do, and I believe that Lee has not half atoned for his great crime." He said "we believe that execution should be done by the shedding of blood instead of by hanging," but only "according to the laws of the land" Template:Harv.

Thomas Coleman murder

An example used by some to illustrate the alleged practice blood atonement is the 1866 murder of the former-slave, Thomas Coleman (or Colburn), who was in good standing as a member of the LDS Church. As Mormon historian D. Michael Quinn has documented, Coleman was apparently secretly courting a white Mormon woman, contrary to both territorial law and Mormon teachings of the time.[citation needed]Template:Weasel-inline At one of their clandestine meetings behind the old Arsenal (on what is now Capitol Hill in Salt Lake) on December 11, Coleman was discovered by "friends" of the woman. The group of vigilantes hit Coleman with a large rock. Using his own bowie knife, his attackers slit his throat so deeply from ear to ear that he was nearly decapitated, as well as slicing open his right breast, in what some believe was a mimicry of penalties illustrated in the temple ritual. Not all of Coleman's wounds correlated with the temple ritual, however, since he was also castrated. A pre-penciled placard was then pinned to his corpse stating, "NOTICE TO ALL NIGGERS - TAKE WARNING - LEAVE WHITE WOMEN ALONE." Even though it was the middle of winter, a grave was dug and Coleman's body was buried. The body was disposed of in less than three hours after its discovery. Less than twelve hours after that, Judge Elias Smith, first cousin of Joseph Smith, appointed George Stringham (a Mormon ruffian and vigilante with ties to Porter Rockwell, Jason Luce, and William Hickman) as the foreman of the Coroner's Jury; they briefly met and summarily dismissed the case as a crime that was committed either by a person or by persons unknown to the jury, abruptly ending all official inquiry into the bizarre murder.[15]

It has been suggested that the ritualistic elements involved in the execution of Coleman’s murder may have been in response to a public sermon made three years earlier by Brigham Young on March 3, 1863. In this sermon, Young states, “I am a human being, and I have the care of human beings. I wish to save life, and have no desire to destroy life. If I had my wish, I should entirely stop the shedding of human blood.”[16] Following this statement, however, Young makes a statement regarding interracial relations in which he continues, "Shall I tell you the law of God in regard to the African race? If the white man who belongs to the chosen seed mixes his blood with the seed of Cain, the penalty, under the law of God, is death on the spot. This will always be so." Young continues his sermon by condemning whites for their abuse of slaves with the proclamation, “for their abuse of that race, the whites will be cursed, unless they repent.”[17]

With regard to Coleman's murder, LDS apologists point out that the practice of "blood atonement" is said to apply to endowed Mormons who apostatized. Coleman was a member in good standing and was not endowed, suggesting that his death may have actually been the result of racism.[18]

Other killings

One of the examples cited by critics of the church is a set of murders in Springville, Utah of individuals who, according to historical documents and court records, were "very questionable characters." Judge Elias Smith stated in regard to the case: "We have carefully examined all the evidence furnished by a remarkably accurate stenographic reporter, and can only conclude that evidence before the court goes to show' that Durfee, Potter and two of the Parrishes got into a row about matters best, if not only, known to themselves, and for that Potter and two Parrishes were killed."[19]

Violence related to LGBT people

The LDS Church teaches that homosexuality is incompatible with Christian beliefs. Latter-day Saints believe that homosexuality can be overcome with intense prayer and faith and adherence to a strictly heterosexual lifestyle. Further, the church has taught, "It is better to choose as friends those who do not publicly display their homosexual feelings."[20] Being homosexual is not considered to be a reason to be excommunicated in itself, until one commits a homosexual act.[21]

In its early days, the LDS Church was not a staunch critic of homosexualty.[22] The state of Utah did not have a sodomy law until it was imposed on the state by the U.S. federal government.

In the time since the LDS Church has begun teaching its beliefs on homosexual practices, there have been situations of violence, and prosecution against gays, lesbian and transgendered people from church leaders and members,[who?] discouraged by some and encouraged by others.[who?][23][24]

In 1959, Brigham Young University conducted an aversion therapy program to "cure" gay men. Suspected homosexuals were referred to the program and placed in a dark room and shown erotic photos of both men and women. The participants were encouraged to masturbate to the illustrations of women and were shocked with electricity through attachments to their arms if they became aroused by the male images.[25]

Boyd K. Packer sermon and pamphlet

In a general conference sermon in October 1976,[26] LDS Church apostle Boyd K. Packer encouraged young Latter-day Saints to "vigorously resist" any males "who entice young men to join them in these immoral acts."[26] Packer cites the example of a male missionary he had known who "floored" his missionary companion. Packer said:

After learning a little more, my response was "Well, thanks. Somebody had to do it, and it wouldn't be well for a General Authority to solve the problem that way"
I am not recommending that course to you, but I am not omitting it. You must protect yourself.[26]

D. Michael Quinn and David E. Hardy have argued that Packer's comments constitute an endorsement of gay bashing, and that the church itself endorses such behavior by continuing to publish Packer's speech in pamphlet form.[27][28] Apostle Dallin H. Oaks asks; "How do we react when persons who do not share our beliefs accuse us of being intolerant or unmerciful when we insist that erotic feelings toward a person of the same sex are irregular and that any sexual behavior of that nature is sinful?". He writes, in regards to application of doctrines and responsibilities, "Our doctrines obviously condemn those who engage in so-called 'gay bashing'—physical or verbal attacks on persons thought to be involved in homosexual or lesbian behavior." He also writes; “… Beware the argument that because a person has strong drives toward a particular act, he has no power of choice and therefore no responsibility for his actions. This contention runs counter to the most fundamental premises of the gospel of Jesus Christ."[29]

California Proposition 8

Some LDS Church property was vandalized during the 2008 election campaign in California. The LDS Church encouraged its members to support Proposition 8. At an LDS Church building in Orangevale, Sacramento County, vandals spray painted "No on 8" and "No on Prop 8" on the front sign and sidewalk.[30] An affiliate group of the radical Trans/Queer organization Bash Back!, claims credit for pouring glue into the locks of an LDS Church building and spray painting on its walls. A internet posting signed by Bash Back!’s Olympia chapter said: “The Mormon church ... needs to be confronted, attacked, subverted and destroyed.”[31]

According to the Chicago Tribune, the acts of vandalism against the LDS Church appear to be in retaliation for support of Proposition 8.[31] The Anti-Defamation League released a statement condemning the "defacement and destruction of property."[32]

List of Mormon wars and massacres

This list of Mormon wars and massacres includes all wars and massacres that have involved significant numbers of members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

Wars

Massacres

See also

Template:Colbegin

Template:Colend

Notes

  1. Gregor, Anthony James (2006), The search for neofascism, Cambridge University Press, pp. 164, ISBN 978-0521859202
  2. Bromley, Melton, David, Gordon (2002), Cults, religion, and violence, Cambridge University Press, pp. 1, ISBN 978-0521668989
  3. Bagley, Will (2004), Blood of the Prophets, University of Oklahoma Press, pp. xvii-, ISBN 978-0806136394
  4. This statement is found in Template:Harvnb, which was written by Willard Richards in 1843 Template:Harv. Years before making this remark, however, Smith was quoted as saying that the hanging of Judas Iscariot was not a suicide, but an execution carried out by Saint Peter Template:Harv.
  5. George A. Smith later changed his views on capital punishment, and would write the first criminal code in Utah which allowed both execution by firing squad and decapitation Template:Harv.
  6. first manuscript version, minutes of general conference, LDS Archives. See Template:Harvnb.
  7. April 6, 1844 statement compiled on April 24, 1844 by Thomas Bullock, LDS Archives. See Template:Harvnb.
  8. Diary of Thomas Bullock, 13 December 1846
  9. Diary of Willard Richards, Dec. 20, 1846; Watson, Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 1846-1847, p. 480.
  10. Diary of Mary Haskin Parker Richards, 16 Apr. 1848.
  11. Daniel Davis diary, 8 July 1849, LDS archives, quoted in Template:Harv.
  12. Stack, Peggy Fletcher, Concept of Blood Atonement Survives in Utah Despite Repudiation, Salt Lake Tribune November 5, 1994 notes that "In the past decade, potential jurors in every Utah capital homicide were asked whether they believed in the Mormon concept of 'blood atonement.'"
  13. Stack, Peggy Fletcher, 1994. The article also notes that Arthur Gary Bishop, a convicted serial killer, was told by a top church leader that "blood atonement ended with the crucifixion of Jesus Christ."
  14. JD 18:361 (May 6, 1877)
  15. Quinn, Extensions of Power, p. 256 and Daily Union Vedette, 15 December 1866.
  16. Template:Harvnb
  17. Template:Harvnb Young also declares that he is “neither an abolitionist nor a pro-slavery man” but that if he had to choose, he would “be against the pro-slavery side of the question.”
  18. Blood Atonement, Foundation for Apologetic Information and Research, http://fairwiki.org/index.php/Blood_atonement
  19. Records published in the Deseret News, April 6th, 1859
  20. "God Loveth His Children". Official Web site of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. http://lds.org/ldsorg/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=e1fa5f74db46c010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD&locale=0&sourceId=3e05c8322e1b3110VgnVCM100000176f620a____&hideNav=1&contentLocale=0. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
  21. Siker, Jeffrey S. (2006), Homosexuality and religion, Greenwood Press, pp. 161, ISBN 978-0313330889
  22. Lippy, Charles H. (2006), Faith in America, Praeger Publishers, pp. 108–109, ISBN 978-0275986056
  23. Swedin, Gottfrid (2003), Healing souls, University of Illinois Press, pp. 173–174, ISBN 978-0252028649
  24. Quinn, D. Michael (2001), Same-Sex Dynamics among Nineteenth-Century Americans, University of Illinois Press, pp. 375–377, ISBN 978-0252069581
  25. Signorile, Michelangelo (2005), Hitting hard, Basic Books, pp. 36, ISBN 978-0786716197
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 Template:Harvtxt.
  27. D. Michael Quinn, "Prelude to the National 'Defense of Marriage' Campaign: Civil Discrimination Against Feared or Despised Minorities", Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, 33:3, p. 1–52 (2001).
  28. David E. Hardy (2001-04-15). "BYU's Dismissal of Gay Students Continues Confusion for Gays, Parents (opinion)". Salt Lake Tribune. p. AA3., Hardy previously criticized the pamphlet at the 26th Sunstone Symposium, see Hilary Groutage Smith (2000-08-06). "Mormon Pamphlets on Gays Criticized". Salt Lake Tribune. p. B2.
  29. Dallin H. Oaks, "Same-Gender Attraction", Liahona, Mar. 1996, 14.
  30. "Prop 8 Protesting Turns Ugly". 2008-11-10. http://www.news10.net/news/local/story.aspx?storyid=50266. Retrieved 2009-04-04.
  31. 31.0 31.1 "Radical Gay Activist Group Plans More Disruptions". Chicago Tribune. November 20, 2008. http://archives.chicagotribune.com/2008/nov/20/news/chi-ap-mi-gayactivistprotes.
  32. "ADL Condemns Criminal Activity Targeting Religious Institutions That Supported Proposition 8". Anti-Defamation League. 2008-11-10. http://news.prnewswire.com/ViewContent.aspx?ACCT=109&STORY=/www/story/11-10-2008/0004922404&EDATE=.

References

  1. Bancroft, Hubert Howe (1889), The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft: History of Utah, 1540–1886, 26, San Francisco: History Company, http://books.google.com/?id=2OwNAAAAIAAJ.
  2. Beck, Martha (2005), Leaving the Saints, New York: Crown Publishers, ISBN 0-609-60991-2.
  3. Buerger, David John (2002), The Mysteries of Godliness: A History of Mormon Temple Worship (2nd ed.), Salt Lake City: Signature Books, ISBN 1560851767.
  4. Campbell, Eugene E. (1988), Establishing Zion: The Mormon Church in the American West, 1847–1869, Salt Lake City: Signature Books, http://www.signaturebookslibrary.org/EstZion/zionch11.htm#chapter11.
  5. Cannon, Frank J.; Knapp, George L. (1913), Brigham Young and His Mormon Empire, New York: Fleming H. Revell Co., http://www.archive.org/details/brighamyoungandh003273mbp.
  6. Cummings, Richard J (1982), "Quintessential Mormonism: Literal-mindedness as a Way of Life", Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 15 (4), http://content.lib.utah.edu/u?/dialogue,14730.
  7. Denton, Sally (2003), American Massacre: The Tragedy at Mountain Meadows, September 1857, London: Secker & Warburg, ISBN 0436276011.
  8. Evans, Richard C (1920), Forty Years in the Mormon Church: Why I Left It, Self published, ISBN 0665741634, http://www.solomonspalding.com/docs2/1920Evn2.htm#pg105b.
  9. Gardner, Martin R (Spring 1979), "Mormonism and Capital Punishment: A Doctrinal Perspective, Past and Present", Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 12 (1), http://content.lib.utah.edu/u?/dialogue,4312.
  10. Grant, Jedediah M. (March 12, 1854), "Discourse", Deseret News 4 (20): 1–2, July 27, 1854, ISBN 0965373444, http://udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/deseretnews1,175293.
  11. Grant, Jedediah M. (September 21, 1856), "Rebuking Iniquity", in Watt, G.D., Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, His Two Counsellors, and the Twelve Apostles, 4, Liverpool: S.W. Richards, 1857, pp. 49–51, http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cgi-bin/docviewer.exe?CISOROOT=/JournalOfDiscourses3&CISOPTR=9596.
  12. Jessee, Dean C. (1971), "The Writing of Joseph Smith's History" (PDF), BYU Studies 11 (4): 439–73, https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/11.4Jessee.pdf
  13. Kimball, Heber C. (January 11, 1857), "The Body of Christ-Parable of the Vine-A Wile Enthusiastic Spirit Not of God-The Saints Should Not Unwisely Expose Each Others' Follies", in Watt, G.D., Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, His Two Counsellors, and the Twelve Apostles, 4, Liverpool: S.W. Richards, 1857, pp. 164–81, http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cgi-bin/docviewer.exe?CISOROOT=/JournalOfDiscourses3&CISOPTR=9596.
  14. Kimball, Heber C. (August 16, 1857), "Limits of Forebearance-Apostates-Economy-Giving Endowments", in Watt, G.D., Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, His Two Counsellors, and the Twelve Apostles, 4, Liverpool: S.W. Richards, 1857, pp. 374–76, http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cgi-bin/docviewer.exe?CISOROOT=/JournalOfDiscourses3&CISOPTR=9596.
  15. Krakauer, Jon (2003), Under the Banner of Heaven: A Story of Violent Faith, Doubleday, ISBN 0-385-50951-0.
  16. Lambert, Neal E.; Cracroft, Richard H. (March 1972), "Through Gentile Eyes: A Hundred Years of the Mormon in Fiction", New Era (Salt Lake City, Utah: LDS Church), http://www.lds.org/portal/site/LDSOrg/menuitem.b12f9d18fae655bb69095bd3e44916a0/?vgnextoid=024644f8f206c010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD&locale=0&sourceId=6abc18e7c379b010VgnVCM1000004d82620a____&hideNav=1.
  17. May, Dean L (1987), Utah: A People's History, Salt Lake City, Utah: Bonneville Books, ISBN 0-87480-284-9.
  18. McConkie, Bruce R (1966), Mormon Doctrine (2 ed.), Salt Lake City, ISBN 0884944468.
  19. McConkie, Bruce R (October 18, 1978), Letter from Bruce R. McConkie to Thomas B. McAffee, http://www.shields-research.org/General/blood_atonement.htm.
  20. McKeever, Bill, Blood Atonement - If It Was Never Taught, Why Do So Many Mormons Believe It?, Mormonism Research Ministry, http://www.mrm.org/topics/salvation/blood-atonement-if-it-was-never-taught-why-do-so-many-mormons-believe-it, retrieved 2007-03-12.
  21. Packer, Boyd K. (1976), To Young Men Only: General Conference Priesthood Session, October 2, 1976, LDS Church, http://www.lds-mormon.com/only.shtml.
  22. Parker, Mike, Did Brigham Young Say that He Would Kill an Adulterous Wife with a Javelin?, Foundation for Apologetic Information and Research (FAIR), http://www.fairlds.org/Misc/Did_Brigham_Young_Say_He_Would_Kill_an_Adulterous_Wife_with_a_Javelin.html.
  23. Peck, Reed (September 18, 1839), Reed Peck manuscript, Quincy Adams City, Illinois, http://en.wikisource.org/w/index.php?title=Reed_Peck_manuscript&oldid=391716.
  24. Penrose, Charles W. (November 17, 1880), "Capital Punishment for Capital Crime", Deseret News 29 (42): 664, http://udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/deseretnews3,156707.
  25. Penrose, Charles W. (July 4, 1883), "An Unpardonable Offense", Deseret News 32 (24): 376, http://udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/deseretnews6,14057.
  26. Penrose, Charles W. (1884), Blood Atonement, As Taught by Leading Elders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City.
  27. Pratt, Parley P. (December 31, 1855), "Marriage and Morals in Utah", Deseret News 5 (45): 356–57, January 16, 1856, http://udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/deseretnews1,3298.
  28. Quinn, D. Michael (1997), The Mormon Hierarchy: Extensions of Power, Salt Lake City: Signature Books, ISBN 1-56085-060-4.
  29. Roberts, B. H., ed. (1902), History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1, Salt Lake City: Deseret News, http://books.google.com/?id=EylEIEiOmZAC.
  30. Roberts, B. H., ed. (1909), History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 5, Salt Lake City: Deseret News, http://www.boap.org/LDS/History/History_of_the_Church/Vol_V.
  31. Roberts, B. H., ed. (1932), History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 7, Salt Lake City: Deseret News, http://www.boap.org/LDS/History/History_of_the_Church/Vol_VII.
  32. Smith, Joseph Fielding (1954), McConkie, Bruce R., ed., Doctrines of Salvation, 1, Salt Lake City, Utah: Bookcraft, ISBN 0884940411.
  33. Smith, Joseph Fielding (1957), "The Doctrine of Blood Atonement", Answers to Gospel Questions (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book): 180–91.
  34. Smith, Joseph (May 1971), "The King Follett Sermon", Ensign (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints), http://www.lds.org/portal/site/LDSOrg/menuitem.b12f9d18fae655bb69095bd3e44916a0/?vgnextoid=2354fccf2b7db010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD&locale=0&sourceId=8b9a945bd384b010VgnVCM1000004d82620a____&hideNav=1.
  35. Smith, William (October 29, 1845), "A Proclamation", Warsaw Signal (Warsaw, Illinois) 2 (32), ISBN 0800641809, http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/IL/sign1845.htm#1029.
  36. Snow, Lowell M (1992), "Blood Atonement", in Ludlow, Daniel H., Encyclopedia of Mormonism: The History, Scripture, Doctrine, and Procedure of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1, New York: Macmillan, http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/u?/EoM,2244.
  37. Stenhouse, T.B.H. (1873), The Rocky Mountain Saints: a Full and Complete History of the Mormons, from the First Vision of Joseph Smith to the Last Courtship of Brigham Young, New York: D. Appleton, http://books.google.com/?id=UEgOAAAAIAAJ.
  38. Taylor, John (January 1884), "Ecclesiastical Control in Utah", North American Review 138 (326): 1–13, http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/sgml/moa-idx?notisid=ABQ7578-0138-3.
  39. Young, Brigham (February 5, 1852), Speech by Gov. Young in Joint Session of the Legeslature (sic), Brigham Young Addresses, Ms d 1234, Box 48, folder 3, LDS Church Historical Department, Salt Lake City, Utah, http://en.wikisource.org/w/index.php?title=Slavery%2C_Blacks%2C_and_the_priesthood&oldid=253414.
  40. Young, Brigham (May 8, 1853), "President B. Young’s Journey South—Indian Difficulties—Walker—Watching and Prayer—Thieves and Their Desserts—Eastern Intelligence—Financial State of the Church—Gaining Knowledge, etc.", in Watt, G.D., Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, His Two Counsellors, the Twelve Apostles, and Others, 1, Liverpool: F.D. & S.W. Richards, 1854, pp. 103–120, http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/u?/JournalOfDiscourses3,1808.
  41. Young, Brigham (March 2, 1856), "The Necessity of the Saints Living up to the Light Which Has Been Given Them", in Watt, G.D., Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, His Two Counsellors, the Twelve Apostles, and Others, 3, Liverpool: Orson Pratt, 1856, pp. 221–226, http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cgi-bin/docviewer.exe?CISOROOT=/JournalOfDiscourses3&CISOPTR=9595.
  42. Young, Brigham (March 16, 1856), "Instructions to the Bishops—Men Judged According to their Knowledge—Organization of the Spirit and Body—Thought and Labor to be Blended Together", in Watt, G.D., Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, His Two Counsellors, the Twelve Apostles, and Others, 3, Liverpool: Orson Pratt, 1856, pp. 243–49, http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cgi-bin/docviewer.exe?CISOROOT=/JournalOfDiscourses3&CISOPTR=9595.
  43. Young, Brigham (September 21, 1856), "The People of God Disciplined by Trials—Atonement by the Shedding of Blood—Our Heavenly Father—A Privilege Given to all the Married Sisters in Utah", in Watt, G.D., Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, His Two Counsellors, and the Twelve Apostles, 4, Liverpool: S.W. Richards, 1857, pp. 51–63, http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cgi-bin/docviewer.exe?CISOROOT=/JournalOfDiscourses3&CISOPTR=9596.
  44. Young, Brigham (February 8, 1857), "To Know God is Eternal Life—God the Father of Our Spirits and Bodies—Things Created Spiritually First—Atonement by the Shedding of Blood", in Watt, G.D., Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, His Two Counsellors, and the Twelve Apostles, 4, Liverpool: S.W. Richards, 1857, pp. 215–21, http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cgi-bin/docviewer.exe?CISOROOT=/JournalOfDiscourses3&CISOPTR=9596.
  45. Young, Brigham (March 8, 1863), "The Persecutions of the Saints—Their Loyalty to the Constitution—The Mormon Battalion—The Laws of God Relative to the African Race", in Watt, G.D.; Long, J.V., Journal of Discourses Delivered by President Brigham Young, His Two Counsellors, and the Twelve Apostles, and Others, 10, Liverpool: Daniel H. Wells, 1865, pp. 104–111, http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/u?/JournalOfDiscourses3,4272.
  46. Young, Brigham (April 7, 1867), "The Word of Wisdom—Degeneracy—Wickedness in the United States—How to Prolong Life", in Watt, G.D.; Sloan, E.L.; Evans, D.W., Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, His Two Counsellors, and the Twelve Apostles, 12, Liverpool: Albert Carrington, 1869, pp. 117–123, ISBN 0548115001, http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/u?/JournalOfDiscourses3,9879.
  47. Young, Brigham (April 30, 1877), "Interview with Brigham Young", Deseret News 26 (16): 242–43, May 23, 1877, http://udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/deseretnews3,150800.

Template:Criticism of religion

es:Mormonismo y violencia

Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.