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Template:Infobox president Mohamed Nasheed (Dhivehi: މުހައްމަދު ނަޝީދު) (born May 17, 1967) is a marine scientist and Maldivian politician. He is the current President of the Maldives. He is the founder of the Maldivian Democratic Party and was its presidential candidate in the October 2008 presidential election, defeating long-time President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom in a second round of voting. He was sworn in as President on November 11, 2008.

He is a former member of Parliament for Malé. He was an outspoken critic of former President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom and his policies. Due to his criticism of the government over the years, he was arrested and sentenced several times.

Education

Nasheed attended Majeediyya School in the Maldives, between 1971 and 1981. He continued his secondary school education overseas at the Overseas School of Colombo, from 1981 to 1982 until he completed his GCE Ordinary Level Certificate. In August 1982 he moved to the United Kingdom where he completed his Higher Secondary Education at the Dauntsey's School in Wiltshire. Straight after his A-Levels, Nasheed moved north to Liverpool where he spent the next three years reading for a Bachelor of Arts in Maritime Studies at Liverpool's John Moores University.

1990-2003

Nasheed was held in prison for an article in the political magazine Sangu, published in 1990, in which he alleged the Maldivian government had rigged the 1989 general election. Because of his is imprisonment, he was made an Amnesty International Prisoner of Conscience in 1991.

After being held in solitary confinement and reportedly tortured, he was accused of withholding information about a bombing plot. On April 8, 1992, he was sentenced to three years in prison on that charge.[1] He was released in June 1993, then re-arrested in 1994 and 1995. In 1996 he was sentenced to two years imprisonment for an article he had written about the 1993 and 1994 Maldivian elections.[2]

In 2000, he was elected as a member of the parliament representing the people of Malé. Six months later, in 2001 he was tried and sentenced to two and half years banishment for the theft of unspecified government property from H. Velaanaage - the former residence of former president Ibrahim Nasir. Though supporters of Nasheed believe that it was a fabricated charge against him motivated by political desires, former attourney general Dr Munavvar relvealed that what he had stolen was the Main door key and other keys of Velaanaage building and later using the keys he had stolen some old documents from the building in which there was some details of the illegaly taken government funds by former president Nasir. Nasheed himself agreed he acquired the said documents. However he didn't reveal how he got the documents. This was later proved to be so, when Dhivehiobserver (of Ahmed Shafeeq Ibrahim Moosa) published a leaked letter, sent by then Minister of Construction and Public Works Umar Zahir to the former Minister of Defence (later the High Commissioner to Delhi) Anbaree Abdul Sattar. The letter, dated on October 31, 2001, was published on the website on October 10, 2005. According to this letter, Nasheed did take some files from the residence which were about to be destroyed as they were of no value to the government. According to Umar Zahir there was no restricted area for the public in the residence. In his letter Umar Zahir stated "Later that day I did check the storage place from which Mohamed Nasheed apparently took that material. Those things have now been burned by Mohamed Nasheed."

Maldivian Democratic party

In November 2003, Nasheed left the Maldives and joined Mohamed Latheef to help establish the Maldivian Democratic Party (MDP), in exile, in Sri Lanka and the UK. He was recognized as a political refugee by the British government in 2004. After about 18 months in self-proclaimed exile, Nasheed returned to Malé on April 30, 2005.

After returning to the Maldives he began promoting the MDP before it was officially recognized by the Government. With the decision to allow political parties in the Maldives, on June 2, 2005 and the official recognition of the MDP's existence, Nasheed accelerated his support campaigns for the party. He made several trips to the Atolls, and neighbouring countries on behalf of the party.

On August 12, 2005, Nasheed was arrested again when he was sitting in the center of the Republican Square, with supporters of MDP, to mark the second anniversary of the Black Friday. His arrest provoked civil unrest in Malé and some other Atolls. After his arrest, acting Government Spokesman Mohamed Hussain Shareef told reporters that Nasheed had been detained for "his own safety." However, on August 22, 2005, the state announced that Nasheed was to be charged with terrorism under the Terrorism Act. He then ran for election in 2008 and won.

2008 presidential election

Nasheed stood as the MDP Itthihaad's candidate together with Mohammed Waheed Hassan as the Vice Presidential Candidate in the October 2008 presidential election; this was the first time the country had held a multiparty presidential election by popular vote. In the first round, Nasheed and Dr. Waheed placed second with 44,293 votes (24.91%), placing second behind President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom of the governing Dhivehi Rayyithunge Party (DRP), who received 71,731 votes (40.34%). In the second round, Nasheed and Dr. Waheed were backed by the unsuccessful first round candidates and won 54.25% of the vote against 45.75% for Gayoom.

Following the election, Nasheed and Dr. Waheed were sworn in as the President and Vice President of the Maldives on November 11, 2008[3] in a special session of the People's Majlis at Dharubaaruge.At Dharubaaruge at his First speech as President he said he will hold a mid term presidential election but after a month as a president his tone was changed and said it was a philosophy not for real and because of this the Ithihaad who joined Nasheed after the first round of election are trying to bring his government down. Nasheed has been criticized for not being able to fulfill many of his numerous pre-election promises.[4][5]

Policies

With regard to the threat posed to the very low-lying islands by changes in sea level caused by global warming, in March 2009, President Nasheed pledged to set an example by making the Maldives carbon-neutral within a decade by moving to wind and solar power. He argued that the cost of the change would be no higher than what the Maldives already spends on energy.[6] As part of a wider campaign by international environmental NGO 350.org's campaign publicizing the threats of climate change and its effects on the Maldives, Nasheed presided over the world’s first underwater cabinet meeting on Oct. 17, 2009, off the island of Girifushi with the meeting participants underwater in Scuba diving gear.[7][8][9][10][11]

Presidential Cabinet

[12]

Cabinet of Ministers
of Mohamed Nasheed's Government
Office Name Term
Ministry of Finance and Treasury Ali Hashim
Ali Hashim
Mahmood Razee (Acting)
Nov. 12, 2008 – Jun. 29, 2010Template:Ref
Jul. 07, 2010 – Dec. 10, 2010Template:Ref
Incumbent
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Ahmed Shaheed
Ahmed Shaheed
Mohamed Aslam (Acting)
Nov. 12, 2008 – Jun. 29, 2010Template:Ref
Jul. 07, 2010 – Dec. 10, 2010Template:Ref
Incumbent
Ministry of Health and Family Aminath Jameel
Aminath Jameel
Nov. 12, 2008 – Jun. 29, 2010Template:Ref
Jul. 07, 2010 – Incumbent
Ministry of Defense and National Security Ameen Faisal
Ameen Faisal
Muizzu Adnan (Acting)
Nov. 12, 2008 – Jun. 29, 2010Template:Ref
Jul. 07, 2010 – Dec. 10, 2010Template:Ref
Incumbent
Ministry of Education Musthafa Luthfy
Musthafa Luthfy
Shifa Mohamed
Nov. 12, 2008 – Jun. 29, 2010Template:Ref
Jul. 07, 2010 – Dec. 10, 2010Template:Ref
Dec. 13, 2010 - Incumbent
Ministry of Tourism, Arts and Culture Ahmed Ali Sawad
Ahmed Ali Sawad
Ali Hashim (Acting)
Mariyam Zulfa
Nov. 12, 2008 – Jun. 29, 2010Template:Ref
Jul. 07, 2010 – Aug. 12, 2010
Aug. 17, 2010 - Nov. 8, 2010
Nov. 8, 2010 - Incumbent
Ministry of Economic Development Mohamed Rasheed
Mahmood Razee (Acting)
Mahmood Razee
Nov. 12, 2008 – May. 09, 2010
May. 12, 2010 – Jul. 07, 2010
Jul. 07, 2010 - Incumbent
Ministry of Human Resources, Youth and Sports Hassan Latheef
Hassan Latheef
Nov. 12, 2008 – Jun. 29, 2010Template:Ref
Jul. 07, 2010 - Incumbent
Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture Ibrahim Didi
Ibrahim Didi
Aminath Jameel (Acting)
Nov. 12, 2008 – Jun. 29, 2010Template:Ref
Jul. 07, 2010 – Dec. 10, 2010Template:Ref
Incumbent
Ministry of Islamic Affairs Abdul Majeed Abdul Bari
Abdul Majeed Abdul Bari
Nov. 12, 2008 – Jun. 29, 2010Template:Ref
Jul. 07, 2010 – Incumbent
Ministry of Home Affairs Qasim Ibrahim
Ameen Faisal (Acting)
Mohamed Shihab
Mohamed Shihab
Hassan Afeef
Nov. 12, 2008 – Dec. 04, 2008
Dec. 04, 2008 – Jun. 03, 2009
Jun. 03, 2009 - Jun. 29, 2010Template:Ref
Jul. 07, 2010 - Dec. 10, 2010Template:Ref
Dec. 13, 2010 - Incumbent
Ministry of Housing and Environment Mohamed Aslam Jul. 07, 2010 – Incumbent
Ministry of Transport and Communication Mahmood Razee (Acting)
Adil Saleem
Jul. 09, 2010 - Nov. 08, 2010
Nov. 08, 2010 – Incumbent
Attorney General Fathmath Dhiyana
Ali Hashim (Acting)
Husnu Suood
Husnu Suood
Ahmed Ali Sawad
Hassan Latheef (Acting)
Ahmed Ali Sawad
Nov. 12, 2008 – May. 19, 2009
May. 19, 2009 – Jun. 03, 2009
Jun. 03, 2009 - Jun. 29, 2010Template:Ref
Jul. 07, 2010 - Aug. 08, 2010
Aug. 12, 2010 - Dec. 10, 2010Template:Ref
Dec. 10, 2010 - Dec. 13, 2010
Dec. 13, 2010 - Incumbent
Ministry of Housing, Transport and Environment (abolished on Jul. 07, 2010) Mohamed Aslam Nov. 12, 2008 - Jun. 29, 2010Template:Ref
Ministry of Civil Aviation and Communication (abolished on Jul. 07, 2010) Mohamed Jameel
Mahmood Razee
Nov. 12, 2008 - May. 30, 2009
Jun. 03, 2009 - Jun. 29, 2010Template:Ref
  • Template:Note Resigned as part of the June 29, 2010 en masse resignation of the cabinet.
  • Template:Note Resigned after rejection by parliament, on December 10, 2010.

Presidency and Political Turmoil

June 2010 En Masse Cabinet Resignation

On 29 June 2010, Nasheed's 13 cabinet ministers resigned en masse, protesting the behaviour of opposition MPs who they said were “hijacking” the powers of the executive and making it impossible for the cabinet Ministers to discharge their constitutional duties and deliver the government’s election manifesto.[13] The ministers called on the President to investigate why certain MPs were blocking the government's work, citing allegations of corruption and bribery in parliament.

On 29 June, Maldives Police Service arrested two parliamentarians, Abdulla Yameen, leader of the People’s Alliance party and former President Gayoom’s half brother, and Gasim Ibrahim, head of the Jumhooree Party, on suspicion of bribing fellow parliamentarians to vote against the government. The police are investigating the two MPs for corruption, along with a third MP, Mohamed Mustapha, of the ruling MDP.

On 7 July, President Nasheed reappointed all thirteen Ministers of the Cabinet, at a ceremony held at the President’s Office in Male'. Speaking at a press conference held shortly after presenting the Ministers with their letters of appointment, President Nasheed said his government would “work towards fulfilling its pledges to the people.” The President noted that the government has investigated the reasons why cabinet members felt they had to resign and the police have taken appropriate action. The President reiterated that only a small number of MPs are implicated in alleged corruption. “The reputation of the People’s Majlis should not be tarnished because of corruption allegations against a few parliamentarians,” the President said.[14]

Parliament Rejection of Cabinet Members

After the reinstallation of the cabinet on July 07, the cabinet was sent to the parliament for endorsement.

On November 22, the parliament voted and declared that only 5 out of the 12 appointees would be accepted. They also called for the rejected ministers to step down immediately. [15] [16]This resulted in heated arguments between ruling party MDP and opposing DRP, who holds majority seats in parliament. The parliament ruled that the rejected appointees would not be considered as ministers, and refused to allow Finance minister, Ali Hashim present the 2011 state budget for parliament approval. [17] Members of MDP responded to this by declaring that neither parliament or supreme court had rights to dismiss ministers and threatened high members of the parliament. [18]

On December 10, 2010, the Supreme Court of Maldives ruled that the ministers not endorsed by the parliament cannot remain in their posts; and requested their immediate resignation from office.[19][20]

On December 13, 2010, President Nasheed appointed 2 new ministers and acting ministers for 4 more offices. He also reappointed the rejected Attorney General, Dr. Sawad. [21]

Awards and honors

In May 2009, Nasheed was presented with Coral Cultivation Initiative Award by Huvafen Fushi Resort and Underwater Spa, Maldives in recognition of his active participation in cultivating coral in the resort’s nursery as well as for his efforts in creating greater awareness on the impact of climate change in the Maldives.[22]

File:PresidentNasheedCopenhagen.jpg

President Nasheed during the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference.

In June 2009, the Anna Lindh Memorial Fund awarded Nasheed, the 2009 Anna Lindh Award[23] for the instrumental role he played in bringing democracy to the Maldives and in recognition of his efforts on the world stage to highlight the dangers of climate change by bringing people and their human rights at the heart of the debate.[24]

In the September of 2009, at the global premier of the "Age of Stupid" Nasheed was presented with a "Not Stupid" Award for his efforts to tackle climate change and for the Maldives' announcement to become the first carbon neutral country in the world.[25] In the same month, Time magazine named Nasheed #1 in the "Leaders & Visionaries" category within its annual list of "Heroes of the Environment (2009)".[26]

On the Earth Day of 2010, Nasheed was awarded the Champions of the Earth Award, the United Nations’ most prestigious environmental prize at a gala event in Seoul, Republic of Korea which was in conjunction with the Business for the Environment Global Summit (B4E). The summit was attended by more than 1,000 representatives from business, government, and civil society. According to a press release by the United Nations Environment Programme, UNEP the award was in recognition of Nasheed, being "an articulate voice for the vulnerable and the poor facing the challenges of global warming and also a politician who is showcasing to the rest of the world how a transition to climate neutrality can be achieved and how all nations, no matter how big or how small, can contribute".[27][28]

In August 2010, Newsweek named President Nasheed in its list of ‘world's ten best leaders’ he was also referred to as a hero among environmentalists.[29]


World records

World's first Underwater Cabinet meeting was held by president Nasheed to highlight the danger faced by global warming and climate change.[30]

References

  1. "Mohamed Nasheed". The English Centre of International PEN. http://www.englishpen.org/writersinprison/writersinexile/mohamednasheed/. Retrieved 2009-09-22.
  2. "Continued detention of prisoner of conscience, Mohammed Nasheed". Amnesty International. 1996-05-01. http://asiapacific.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGASA290021996. Retrieved 2009-09-22.[dead link]
  3. "New Maldives president sworn in". BBC News. November 11, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/7721335.stm. Retrieved 2008-11-11.
  4. www.miadhu.com.mv, Nasheed sworn in as Maldives new President
  5. news.bbc.co.uk 'Anni' heralds new era in Maldives, BBC
  6. Carbon-neutral goal for Maldives, BBC
  7. First photos coming From Maldives Underwater Cabinet Meeting for 350! | 350.org
  8. Official Site
  9. Press Release
  10. "Maldives Holds Underwater Cabinet Meeting To Bring Attention to Climate Change : TreeHugger". www.treehugger.com. http://www.treehugger.com/files/2009/10/maldives-underwater-cabinet-meeting.php. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
  11. "The Hindu : News / International : Maldives cabinet to meet underwater to highlight perils of climate change". beta.thehindu.com. http://beta.thehindu.com/news/international/article34170.ece. Retrieved 2009-10-17.
  12. http://www.presidencymaldives.gov.mv/4/?ref=3,12,0
  13. http://www.presidencymaldives.gov.mv/4/?ref=1,5,4683
  14. http://www.presidencymaldives.gov.mv/4/?ref=1,5,4745
  15. http://minivannews.com/politics/parliament-only-approves-5-out-of-12-ministerial-appointees-13530
  16. http://www.miadhu.com/2010/12/featured/supreme-court-rules-that-rejected-minister’s-cannot-remain/
  17. http://minivannews.com/politics/speaker-and-deputy-speaker-will-be-unable-to-enter-parliament-if-hashim-cannot-claims-reeko-13580
  18. http://minivannews.com/politics/supreme-court-has-no-authority-to-dismiss-ministers-claims-reeko-moosa-13789
  19. http://minivannews.com/politics/supreme-court-rules-rejected-ministers-cannot-remain-in-their-positions-14240
  20. http://www.miadhu.com/2010/12/featured/supreme-court-rules-that-rejected-minister’s-cannot-remain/
  21. http://minivannews.com/news-in-brief/president-reappoints-sawad-as-attorney-general-14286
  22. "President receives Coral Cultivation Initiative Award", www.presidencymaldives.gov.mv
  23. "President receives 2009 Anna Lindh Award", www.miadhu.com.mv
  24. "Anna Lindh Prize 2009 to President of the Maldives", www.annalindhsminnesfond.se
  25. "Maldives President 'Not Stupid'", doreview.blogspot.com
  26. "Heroes of the Environment 2008: Leaders & Visionaries: Mohamed Nasheed", Ishaan Tharoor, Time
  27. [1]
  28. [2]
  29. "Cowen named in top 10 world leaders". The Irish Times. August 18, 2010. http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/breaking/2010/0818/breaking33.html. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
  30. [3]

External links

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