This practice was common among paramilitaries in Italy and Northern Ireland and has been reported from Gaza. Contrary to popular belief, the patella (knee cap) is usually not injured in these incidents; rather damage to soft tissues that include nerves and arteries is the primary target.
- Erlanger, Steven (15 July 2007). "A Life of Unrest". The Times Magazine. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/15/magazine/15HAMAS-t.html. Retrieved 23 February 2010.
- "Nixon JR. "Knee-capping". Low velocity gunshot wounds of the knee: a review of eighty-six such injuries treated at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast. Dissertation for the Degree MCh(Orth), University of Liverpool, 1975." (PDF). http://www.jbjs.org.uk/cgi/reprint/71-B/5/739.pdf. Retrieved 2010-02-23.
- "Kneecapping". Aliciapatterson.org. 1972-07-17. http://www.aliciapatterson.org/APF0305/Conroy/Conroy.html. Retrieved 2010-02-23.
- "Punishment beatings: A grip of fear". BBC. 1999-01-25. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/events/northern_ireland/focus/262543.stm.
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