IMPORTANT:This page has used Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia in either a refactored, modified, abridged, expanded, built on or 'straight from' text content! (view authors)


Template:Infobox World Heritage Site James Island is an island in the Gambia River, 30km from the river mouth and near Juffureh in the country of The Gambia. It contains a fort known as Fort James. It is less than two miles from Albreda on the river's northern bank that served a similar purpose for the French.

History

The first European settlers on the island were Baltic Germans from the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, who also had other colonial possessions in the area. They called it St. Andrews Island, though the English Crown had previously granted the island to two separate companies in 1588 and 1618. In 1651, the settlers built a fort that they named Jacob Fort after Jacob Kettler, the Duke of Courland, and used it as a trade base. The Dutch briefly held the fort from 1659 until the English captured it in 1661; the Dutch formally ceded the fort to the English in 1664.

File:James Island and Fort Gambia.jpg

Map of Fort James and James Island from 1755

The English renamed the island James Island and the fort Fort James after James, the Duke of York, later King James II of England. The chartered Royal Adventurers in Africa Company administered the territory, which initially used it for the gold and ivory trade, and later in the slave trade. On 1 August 1669, the Company sublet the administration to Gambia Adventurers. In 1684, the Royal African Company took over Gambia's administration.

In 1695, the French captured Fort James after a battle with English sailors. They returned it in 1697 but then captured it again in 1702. The fort was destroyed and rebuilt several times in this period, both in conflicts between the English and French and by pirates. On 13 June 1750 the Company of Merchants Trading in Africa assumed the administration of The Gambia. Between 25 May 1765 - 11 February 1779, The Gambia was part of British Senegambia.

File:JamesIsland.jpg

Ruins on the island

The Six-Gun Battery (1816) and Fort Bullen (1826), now included in the James Island UNESCO World Heritage Site and located on both sides of the mouth of the River Gambia, were built with the specific intent of thwarting the slave trade once it had become illegal in the British Empire after the passing of the Slave Trade Act in 1807. These sites along with the island itself were abandoned in 1870.

Legacy

As an important historical site in the West African slave trade, it is now listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, together with related sites including Albreda, Juffureh and Fort Bullen. James Island is suffering heavy erosion, and is now approximately 1/6th of its size during the times of the fort. Ruins of several of the British administrative buildings (including a single cell, apparently used to house the most troublesome captives), a small jetty and a number of skeletal baobab trees remain. The ruins have been stabilised, and protected by a capping. Due to the low land of the island, some structures are at times beaten by the waves during high tide and storms. [1]

Kunta Kinte, author Alex Haley's Mandingo ancestor, described in the book and TV series Roots, was probably shipped through James Island.

References

External links

Template:Coord/display/title

de:James Island es:Isla James fr:Île James ko:제임스 섬 hi:जेम्स द्विप it:Isola James he:ג'יימס איילנד ka:ჯეიმსის კუნძული (გამბია) lv:Džeimsa sala lt:Džeimso sala nl:James Island ja:ジェームズ島 (ガンビア) no:James Island nn:James Island pl:Wyspa James pt:Ilha James (Gâmbia) ro:Insula James ru:Джеймс (остров, Гамбия) fi:James Island sv:James Island tr:James Adası zh:詹姆斯岛 (冈比亚)

Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.