|Jack T. Chick|
Jimmy Akin's drawing
of Jack Chick
April 13, 1924|
Boyle Heights, California
Comic book creator
|Known for||Chick Tracts|
Chick's company, Chick Publications, claims to have sold over 750 million tracts comics tracts, videos, books, and posters designed to promote Protestant evangelism from a Christian Fundamentalist point of view. Many of these are controversial, as they accuse Catholics, Freemasons, Muslims and many other groups with murder and conspiracies, while Chick maintains his views are simply politically incorrect.
His views have been spread worldwide, mostly through the tracts and now online have been translated into more than 100 languages. As evidenced from his writings and publications, Chick is an Independent Baptist who follows a dispensational premillennialist view of the end times. He is a follower of the King James Only movement.
Chick was born in the Boyle Heights section of Los Angeles, California, the first of two children of commercial artist Thomas Chick (1903–1973) and his wife Pauline (1903–1991). The family later moved to Alhambra where Chick was active in the high school drama club. Chick's official biography notes that he was not religious in high school and was in fact avoided by Christian students, who believed "he was the last guy on earth who would ever accept Jesus Christ."
After his graduation, he continued his drama education at the Pasadena Playhouse School of Theater on a two-year scholarship. In February 1943, Chick was drafted as a private in the U.S. Army. He served for three years in the Pacific theater, serving in New Guinea, Australia, the Philippines and Japan. Chick credits his time overseas with inspiring him to translate his tracts into many different languages and says he has "a special burden for missions and missionaries."
After the war, he returned to the Pasadena Playhouse and met his wife while working on a production there. Lola Lynn Priddle (1926–1998), a Canadian immigrant, came from a very religious family, and Chick's official biography describes her as "instrumental in his salvation." Priddle and her parents introduced Chick to the Charles E. Fuller radio show, the Old Fashioned Revival Hour, and Chick relates that he was converted while listening to an episode of this show. They married in 1948 and had one child, Carol, who died in 2001. In February 1998, Lola Lynn died and Chick has since remarried. In a 2005 issue of Battle Cry, Chick reported that he had suffered a heart attack while being transported to the hospital suffering from hypoglycemia. Shortly thereafter he had a triple coronary artery bypass.
Very little is known about Jack Chick; he lives a reclusive life and has given only one known professional interview since 1975. His reclusiveness created speculation in the past that he was a pen name for an unnamed author or authors. Several audio cassettes of his preaching distributed to his subscribers purport to contain his voice. He has never released a photo of himself for publication, although photos purportedly of Chick have been published by others.
After converting to Christianity, Chick wanted to evangelize others, but was too shy to talk to people directly about religion. Chick heard from missionary Bob Hammond, who broadcast in Asia on the Voice of America, that the Communist Party of China had gained significant influence among ordinary Chinese in the 1950s through the distribution of small comic books. Chick also began working with a prison ministry and created a flip chart of illustrations to use with his presentation. He hit upon the idea of creating witnessing tracts, which could be given to people directly or indirectly.
While working for the AstroScience Corporation in El Monte, California, he self-published his first tract, Why No Revival?, with a loan from his credit union in 1960 and wrote his second tract, A Demon's Nightmare, shortly afterward. He decided to create more tracts and began "using his kitchen table as an office and art studio." Christian bookstores were reluctant to accept the tracts, but they were popular among missionaries and churches.
Chick Publications was officially established in 1970 in Rancho Cucamonga, California. Initially, Jack Chick wrote and illustrated all of the comics himself, but in 1972 he hired another artist to illustrate many of the tracts. Fred Carter illustrated tracts anonymously until 1980, when he was identified in an issue of Chick's newsletter Battle Cry. Carter also painted the oil paintings seen in The Light of the World, a film Chick produced that relates the Christian gospel.
Chick Publications has released over twenty "Chick comics" since its founding in 1970. The first eleven form the Crusader comics series, which follows the stories of two fundamentalist Christians and addresses topics such as the occult, Bible prophecy and the theory of evolution. Six comics present the testimony of anti-Catholic activist Alberto Rivera, who claimed that, as a Jesuit priest, he had become privy to many secrets about the Roman Catholic Church. Among Rivera's claims: Catholicism created Islam (the "Vatican Islam conspiracy"), masterminded the 1917 Russian Revolution and the Holocaust, and started World War II. There are also three independent comics, one telling stories from the King James Version of the Bible, one relaying the claims of Charles Chiniquy regarding Catholicism, and one detailing Chick's opinions on Joseph Smith and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
Chick Publications also distributes "Chick tracts," small comic tracts with religious messages. Over 200 have been published, and most can be viewed in their entirety on the company's website. The most popular Chick tract, "This Was Your Life," has been translated into around 100 languages, and many other tracts are available in widely spoken languages such as Arabic, German, Spanish, and Tagalog.
Chick's tracts cover subjects such as abortion, homosexuality, non-Protestant religions, the occult, rock music, politics, popular culture, J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter series and the theory of evolution, generally in a negative light. Chick believes many of the world's problems are deliberately caused by the Catholic Church. He credits Catholicism with founding Islam, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and the Jehovah's Witnesses, persecuting Jews and starting the Holocaust, and the Inquisition   and founding and promoting Communism.
Chick also claims that Satan and his demons promote the occult through New Age beliefs, Rock Music (including Christian Rock), Wicca, role-playing games like Dungeons and Dragons   to deceive people and send them to Hell. Chick is opposed to abortion and preaches against pre-marital sex. He believes homosexuality is a sin, and makes reference to the Biblical story of Sodom and Gomorrah in tracts treating homosexuality.
Chick's views have been criticized by some of the groups he targets, including Pagans and Catholic organizations. Wiccan author Kerr Cuhulain describes Chick and his theories as "anti-feminist" and "anti-Pagan," notes that a Chick Publications comic book was the source of a Rapid City, South Dakota police detective's presentation on the history of Satanism given in 1989, and describes him as "easily the least reputable source of reliable information on religious groups."
Many Catholic and Protestant organizations consider Chick to be anti-Catholic, based on his various claims about the Roman Catholic Church . Chick responds to these accusations by saying he is opposed to the Roman Catholic Church but not its individual members. On his "Roman Catholicism FAQ," Chick says he began publishing his theories about the Roman Catholic Church because "he loves Catholics and wants them to be saved through faith in Jesus." Catholic Answers calls Chick "savagely anti-Catholic," describes Chick's claims about the Catholic Church as "bizarre" and "often grotesque in their arguments," and calls for the tracts to be pulled from the market and corrected. In the early 1980s, Chick's stance on Catholicism led some Christian bookstores to stop stocking his tracts, and he withdrew from the Christian Booksellers Association after the association considered expelling him. Christianity Today described Jack Chick as an example of "the world of ordinary, nonlearned evangelicals," for whom "atavistic anti-Catholicism remains as colorful and unmistakable as ever."
Michael Ian Borer, a sociology professor of Furman University at the time, showed Chick's strong anti-Catholic themes in a 2007 American Sociological Association presentation and in a peer reviewed article the next year in Religion and American Culture
- Akin, Jimmy (March 2004). "Meet Jack Chick". This Rock (Catholic Answers). http://www.catholic.com/thisrock/2004/0403fea2.asp. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- Chick publications website header.
- "Over the years, Jack Chick has written some stories that were so hot, that touched such politically incorrect issues, that often people were afraid to pass them out on the streets." Hot Topics at chick.com
- "Tract Languages". Non English Tract Look Up. Chick Publications. http://www.chick.com/catalog/TractLookUp.asp. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- "California Birth Index, 1905-1995 (free registration required)". State of California Department of Health Services, Center for Health Statistics.. 2005. http://www.vitalsearch-ca.com/. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- U.S. Census, April 1, 1930, State of California, County of Los Angeles, enumeration district 909, p. 9-A, family 234.
- Ancestry.com, Social Security Death Index [database on-line], Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2007.
- Ito, Robert (July 6). "To Hell With You" ([dead link]). The Independent on Sunday. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4159/is_20030706/ai_n12744201
- "Biography of Jack Chick". Chick Publications. http://www.chick.com/information/authors/chick.asp. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- "Electronic Army Serial Number Merged File, ca. 1938 - 1946 (Enlistment Records)". World War II Army Enlistment Records. National Archives and Records Administration. September 30, 2002. http://aad.archives.gov/aad/display-partial-records.jsp?dt=893&mtch=166&q=&cat=all&tf=F&bc=sl,fd&txt_24995=Chick&op_24995=2&nfo_24995=V,24,1900&sc=24994,24995,24996,24998,24997,24993,24981,24983&rpp=10&sort=24995%20desc&pg=7. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- Ancestry.com, Detroit Border Crossings and Passenger and Crew Lists, 1905-1957 [database on-line], Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2006.
- Baber, La Rue V. (2003). "Spreading the "Light"". The Daily Bulletin. http://www.chick.com/catalog/videos/filmreview.asp. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- Chick, Jack (September/October 2005). "A Message from Jack Chick". Battle Cry. http://www.chick.com/bc/2005/jtcletters_o.asp. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- Davis, Scoobie (October 31, 2006). "The Jack T. Chick Documentary". Scoobie Davis Online. http://scoobiedavis.blogspot.com/2006/10/jack-t.html. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- Akin, Jimmy (2007-02-16). "The Face Of Chick?". JimmyAkin.org. http://jimmyakin.typepad.com/defensor_fidei/2007/02/the_face_of_chi.html. Retrieved 2009-12-30.
- "The Light of the World: A Film by Jack T Chick". Chick Publications. http://www.chick.com/catalog/videos/lotw.asp. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- "Crusader Comics". Comics List. Chick Publications. http://www.chick.com/catalog/comiclist.asp. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- Chick, Jack (1982). The Godfathers. Chick Publications. http://www.chick.com/reading/comics/0114/0114_allinone.asp.
- "Stock Arabic Titles". Non English Tract Look Up. Chick Publications. http://www.chick.com/catalog/tractlookuplist.asp?language=Arabic. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- German "Stock German Titles". Non English Tract Look Up. Chick Publications. http://www.chick.com/catalog/tractlookuplist.asp?language= German. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- "Stock Spanish Titles". Non English Tract Look Up. Chick Publications. http://www.chick.com/catalog/tractlookuplist.asp?language=Spanish. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- "Stock Tagalog Titles". Non English Tract Look Up. Chick Publications. http://www.chick.com/catalog/tractlookuplist.asp?language=Tagalog. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- "English Tract List". Chick Publications. http://www.chick.com/catalog/tractlist.asp. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- Chick, Jack (1985). The Storyteller. Chick Publications. pp. 8. http://www.chick.com/reading/tracts/0062/0062_01.asp.
- Chick, Jack (1984). The Visitors. Chick Publications. pp. 17. http://www.chick.com/reading/tracts/0061/0061_01.asp.
- Chick, Jack (1985). The Crisis. Chick Publications. pp. 11–12. http://www.chick.com/reading/tracts/0026/0026_01.asp.
- Chick, Jack (1984). Holocaust. Chick Publications. pp. 5–10. http://www.chick.com/reading/tracts/0054/0054_01.asp.
- Chick, Jack (2000). Bewitched. Chick Publications. pp. 5–7. http://www.chick.com/reading/tracts/0045/0045_01.asp.
- Chick, Jack (1989). Angels?. Chick Publications. pp. 5–7. http://www.chick.com/reading/tracts/0034/0034_01.asp.
- Chick, Jack (2002). The Nervous Witch. Chick Publications. pp. 9–13. http://www.chick.com/reading/tracts/5012/5012_01.asp.
- Chick, Jack (1987). The Poor Little Witch. Chick Publications. http://www.chick.com/reading/tracts/0064/0064_01.asp.
- Chick, Jack (1984). Dark Dungeons. Chick Publications. http://www.chick.com/reading/tracts/0046/0046_01.asp.
- Chick, Jack (2004). The Devil's Night. Chick Publications. pp. 5–13. http://www.chick.com/reading/tracts/1053/1053_01.asp.
- Chick, Jack (2000). Who Murdered Clarice?. Chick Publications. http://www.chick.com/reading/tracts/1009/1009_01.asp.
- Chick, Jack (1995). Baby Talk. Chick Publications. http://www.chick.com/reading/tracts/0077/0077_01.asp.
- Chick, Jack (1992). That Crazy Guy!. Chick Publications. http://www.chick.com/reading/tracts/0090/0090_01.asp.
- Chick, Jack (1985). The Gay Blade. Chick Publications. http://www.chick.com/reading/tracts/0084/0084_01.asp.
- Chick, Jack (2004). Birds and the Bees. Chick Publications. http://www.chick.com/reading/tracts/1052/1052_01.asp.
- Chick, Jack (1991). Doom Town. Chick Publications. http://www.chick.com/reading/tracts/0273/0273_01.asp.
- Cuhulain, Kerr (August 26, 2002). "Jack Chick: Tracts for Every Occasion". Pagan Protection Center: pp. 4. http://www.witchvox.com/va/dt_va.html?a=cabc&c=whs&id=4639
- "The Nightmare World of Jack T. Chick". Catholic Answers. http://www.catholic.com/library/sr_chick_tracts.asp. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- Chick, Jack. "Roman Catholicism FAQ". Chick Publications. http://www.chick.com/information/religions/catholicism/. Retrieved 2010-02-07.
- Newkirk, Terrye. "Who's @fr@id of the Big Bad Web?: A Guide for Catholic Newbies". Catholic Answers. http://www.catholic.com/thisrock/1997/9702fea2.asp. Retrieved 2008-02-21.
- "Chick Tracts: Their Origin and Refutation". Catholic Answers. pp. 3. http://www.catholic.com/library/sr_chick_tracts_p3.asp. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- Keating, Karl. "Burden of History". Up Front. Catholic Answers. http://www.catholic.com/thisrock/2000/0004up.asp. Retrieved 2008-02-21.
- "Chick Tracts: Their Origin and Refutation". Catholic Answers. pp. 6. http://www.catholic.com/library/sr_chick_tracts_p6.asp. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- "Booksellers’ Group May Expel Chick". Christianity Today. October 23, 1981. pp. 62.
- Mark, Noll; Carolyn Nystrom (July 1, 2005). "Is the Reformation Over? (Registration and payment required for online access)". Christianity Today. http://www.ctlibrary.com/bc/2005/julaug/1.10.html.
- Borer, Michael. (2007)http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p181814_index.html "Drawing Religious Battle Lines: The “Culture Wars Work” of Jack Chick’s Anti-Catholic Cartoons"] Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, New York, New York City, Aug 11, 2007
- Borer, Michael Ian; Murphree, Adam (Winter 2008). "Framing Catholicism: Jack Chick's Anti-Catholic Cartoons and the Flexible Boundaries of the Culture Wars". Religion and American Culture 18 (1): 95–112. doi:10.1525/rac.2008.18.1.95
- Kuersteiner, Kurt (2004) "The Art of Jack T. Chick" Schiffer Books ISBN 0-7643-1892-6
- Fowler, Robert B. (2001). The world of Jack T. Chick: (the history of the world according to Jack T. Chick), Last Gasp, ISBN 0867195126.
- Ito, Robert (2003) "To Hell With You" Independent on Sunday Jul 6, 2003
- Chick Publications website
- God's Cartoonist: The Comic Crusade of Jack Chick Documentary film about Jack Chick and Chick Publications
- Jack T. Chick Museum of Fine Art Includes tracts discontinued and removed by Chick Publications.
- The Nightmare World of Jack Chick Criticism and analysis of Chick's statement from a Catholic perspective
- "A Survey of Chick Publications" by William A. Donohue (Catalyst, October 1996) Catholic League for Religious and Civil Rights—overview of Chick Tracks
- Anti-Masonic Examples: Chick Publications - A rebuttal to Chick Publications' claims about Masonry
- Meeting Jack Chick an interview with Jack Chick
- Criticism of chick.com - from the Hindu American Foundation