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Human rights as a legal concept is a relatively recent notion in Africa. The United Nations System, international law and the African Union have certainly all contributed to the establishment of a human rights system in Africa, which has positively and indispensably influenced the advancement of human rights and of justice. However, some of the promises made about such rights being guaranteed under global, continental, regional and national legal instruments have remained unfulfilled.
Democratic governments seem to be spreading, though are not yet the majority (National Geographic claims 13 African nations can be considered truly democratic). As well, many nations have at least nominally recognized basic human rights for all citizens, though in practice these are not always recognized, and have created reasonably independent judiciaries.
Extensive human rights abuses still occur in several parts of Africa, often under the oversight of the state. Most of such violations can be attributed to political instability, often as a 'side effect' of civil war. Notable countries with reported major violations include, but are not limited to, the Sudan, and Côte d'Ivoire. Reported violations include extrajudicial execution, mutilation, and rape.
- Congo (Brazzaville)
- São Tomé and Príncipe
- South Africa: generally noted for the widely-repudiated policy of Apartheid, or racial segregation, democracy and greater civil liberties have spread since the change of regime in 1994
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- Bösl, Anton & Diescho, Joseph (Eds), Human Rights in Africa. Legal Perspectives on their Protection and Promotion, Macmillan Education Namibia 2009
- Bösl, A and Diescho, J. (eds), Human Rights in Africa. Legal Perspectives on their protection and promotion, Macmillan Education Namibia, 2009 
- U.S. State Department - Human Rights Annual Reports