The relationship between gender and suicide has been extensively researched by Western sociologists, given that males die much more often by means of suicide than do females, although reported suicide attempts are more common among females.
Some medical professionals[who?] believe this stems from the fact that males are more likely to end their lives through effective violent means (guns, knives, hanging, etc.), while women primarily use less severe methods such as overdosing on medications.
The incidence of successful suicide is vastly higher among males than females among all age groups in most of the world. In the United States, the ratio varies between 3:1 to 10:1.
Some[who?] ascribe the disparity to inherent differences in male/female psychology. Greater social stigma against male depression and a lack of social networks of support and help with depression are often identified as key reasons for men's disproportionately higher level of suicides, since suicide as a "cry for help" is not seen by men as an equally viable option.
Typically males die from suicide three to four times more often as females, and not unusually five or more times as often. CALM, the Campaign Against Living Miserably is a charity in the UK that attempts to highlight this issue for public discussion.
Excess male mortality from suicide is also evident from data from non-Western countries. In 1979-81, out of 74 countries with a non-zero suicide rate, two reported equal rates for the sexes (Seychelles and Kenya), three reported female rates exceeding male rates (Papua-New Guinea, Macau, and French Guiana), while the remaining 69 countries had male suicide rates greater than female suicide rates.
China is the only country in the world where more women than men take their own lives, with female suicides representing 58 percent of the total.
|1||Template:Country data Lithuania||68.1||12.9||38.6||2005|
|2||Template:Country data Belarus||63.3||10.3||35.1||2003|
|3||Template:Country data Russia||58.1||9.8||32.2||2005|
|4||Template:Country data Slovenia||42.1||11.1||26.3||2006|
|5||Template:Country data Hungary||42.3||11.2||26.0||2005|
|6||Template:Country data Kazakhstan||45.0||8.1||25.9||2005|
|7||Template:Country data Latvia||42.0||9.6||24.5||2005|
- "Suicide Statistics at Suicide.org". Suicide prevention, awareness, and support. Suicide.org. 2005. http://www.suicide.org/suicide-statistics.html#2005. Retrieved 2010-12-22.
- "Are There Gender Differences in Suicide Methods?". About.com. 2009. http://depression.about.com/od/suicid1/f/suicide.htm. Retrieved 2010-12-22.
- "Teen Suicide Statistics". Adolescent Teenage Suicide Prevention. FamilyFirstAid.org. 2001. http://www.familyfirstaid.org/suicide.html. Retrieved 2006-04-11.
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- Lester, Patterns, Table 3.3, pp. 31-33
- Barraclough BM (1987). "Sex ratio of juvenile suicide" ([dead link]). J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 26 (3): 434–5. doi:10.1097/00004583-198705000-00027. PMID 3496328. http://journals.lww.com/jaacap/Abstract/1987/05000/Sex_Ratio_of_Juvenile_Suicide.27.aspx.
- "China's suicide rate roaring". Straits Time. 2008. http://www.straitstimes.com/Breaking%2BNews/Asia/Story/STIStory_312205.html.
- Country reports and charts available, World Health Organization. Retrieved March 16, 2008.