Frontier justice (also called vigilante justice) is extrajudicial punishment that is motivated by the nonexistence of law and order or dissatisfaction with justice. The phrase can also be used to describe a prejudiced judge. Lynching and gunfighting are considered forms of frontier justice.
- Late 1800s: A group of self-appointed lawmen called "stranglers" lynched around sixty horse and cattle rustlers along southwest North Dakota's Little Missouri River.
- 1886: Theodore Roosevelt, who would become President of the United States, captured three alleged horse thieves who had stolen a rowboat from his ranch. Roosevelt delivered the thieves to the nearest authority.
- April 1991: Jose Vicente Anunciacao murdered a coworker during a drunken knife-fight in Salvador. Witnesses to the crime were not able to provide evidence in court. Anunciacao was set free and then dragged from his bed at night by a mob of forty people who beat him to death with bricks and clubs. Previously, a mob of fifteen-hundred people stormed and set fire to the Parana prison where Valdecir Ferreira and Altair Gomes were being held for the murder of a taxi-cab driver.
- Kingseed, Wyatt. "Teddy Roosevelt's Frontier Justice." American History 36 (2002): 22-28.
- Gonzales-Day, Ken. Lynching in the West: 1850-1935. London: Duke University Press, 2006. 
- Bryant, Wilbur Franklin. The Blood of Abel. Gazette-Journal Company, 1887. 
- Mullins, Jesse. "To Stand Your Ground." American Cowboy, May 1994. 
- "Brazil's frontier justice." The Economist, April 27, 1991.
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