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Dysphoria (from Greek δύσφορος (dysphoros), from δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is an unpleasant or uncomfortable mood, such as sadness (depressed mood), anxiety, irritability, or restlessness.[1] Etymologically, it is the opposite of euphoria.

Dysphoria refers only to a condition of mood and may be experienced in response to ordinary life events, such as illness or grief. Additionally, it is a feature of many psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders and mood disorders. Dysphoria is usually experienced during depressive episodes, but in people with bipolar disorder, it may also be experienced during manic or hypomanic episodes.[2] Dysphoria in the context of a mood disorder indicates a heightened risk of suicide.[2]

Dysphoria can be chemically induced by substances including µ-opioid antagonists[3] and selective ĸ-opioid agonists.[4] Dysphoria is also one of the symptoms of hypoglycemia.[citation needed]

Conditions related to dysphoria

The following conditions may include dysphoria as a major component or symptom.

  • Clinical depression (unipolar) and dysthymia
  • Bipolar disorder[2] and cyclothymia
  • Premenstrual Syndrome
  • Adjustment disorder with depressed mood
  • General anxiety disorder
  • Gender identity disorder, sometimes called gender dysphoria
  • Personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder
  • Substance withdrawal
  • Body dysmorphic disorder
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Schizophrenia
  • Sexual Dysfunction
  • Species dysphoria, a feeling of having been "born in the wrong body."
  • Insomnia[5]
  • Chronic pain[6]

See also

  • Self-medication


  1. Abbess; Alleydog.com.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Read, 2006.
  3. Nalbuphine Official FDA information, side effects and uses
  4. Metcalf & Coop, 2005.
  5. Rosa RR, Bonnet MH (2000). "Reported chronic insomnia is independent of poor sleep as measured by electroencephalography". Psychosom Med 62 (4): 474–82. PMID 10949091.
  6. Chapman CR, Gavrin J (June 1999). "Suffering: the contributions of persistent pain". Lancet 353 (9171): 2233–7. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)01308-2. PMID 10393002.


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