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Claude Mason Steele is an American social psychology professor and Provost of Columbia University. He is best known for his work on stereotype threat[1].

He earned a B.A. in psychology from Hiram College in Ohio in 1967. He then studied social psychology, earning an M.A. in 1969 and a Ph.D. in 1971 from the Ohio State University.

According to the Social Psychology Network:

"His research interests are in three areas. Throughout his career he has been interested in processes of self-evaluation, in particular in how people cope with self-image threat. This work has led to a general theory of self-affirmation processes. A second interest, growing out of the first, is a theory of how [group stereotypes] -- by posing an extra self-evaluative and belongingness threat to such groups as African Americans in all academic domains and women in quantitative domains -- can influence intellectual performance and academic identities. Third, he has long been interested in addictive behaviors, particularly alcohol addiction, where his work with several colleagues has led to a theory of "alcohol myopia," a theory in which many of alcohol's social and stress-reducing effects -- effects that may underlie its addictive capacity -- are explained as a consequence of alcohol's narrowing of perceptual and cognitive functioning."

Steele is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences, the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Education. He holds honorary doctorates from Chicago, Princeton and Yale.

His twin brother is the conservative writer and fellow of the Hoover Institute, Shelby Steele.

Teaching and Administrative appointments

Publications

  • Aronson, J. & Steele, C.M. (2005). Stereotypes and the fragility of human competence, motivation, and self-concept. In C. Dweck & E. Elliot (Eds.), Handbook of Competence & Motivation. New York, Guilford.
  • Cohen, G., Steele, C. M., & Ross, L. D. (1999). The mentor's dilemma: Providing critical feedback across the racial divide. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1302-1318.
  • Josephs, R. A., Larrick, R.P, Steele, C. M., & Nisbett, R. E. (1992). Protecting the self from the negative consequences of risky decisions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62(1), 26-37.
  • Marx, D., Brown, J., & Steele, C. M. (1999). Allport and stereotype threat: On being the target of a negative stereotype. Journal of Social Issues, 55(3), 491-502. DOI:10.1111/0022-4537.00129.
  • Steele, C. M. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape the intellectual identities and performance of women and African-Americans. American Psychologist, 52, 613-629.
  • Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African-Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 797-811.
  • Steele, C. M., & Josephs, R. A. (1990). Alcohol myopia: Its prized and dangerous effects. American Psychologist, 45(8), 921-933.
  • Steele, C. M., Spencer, S. J., & Lynch, M. (1993). Self-image resilience and dissonance: The role of affirmational resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 885-896.
  • Crocker, J., Major, B., & Steele, C. (1998). Social stigma. In D. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (4th ed., vol. 2, pp. 504-553). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
  • Spencer, S. J., Josephs, R. A., & Steele, C. M. (1993). Low self-esteem: The uphill struggle for self-integrity. In R. F. Baumeister (Ed.), Self-esteem and the puzzle of low self-regard. New York: Wiley.
  • Steele, C. M. (1999, August). Thin ice: "Stereotype threat" and black college students. The Atlantic Monthly. 284(2), 44-47, 50-54.
  • Steele, C. M. (1992, April). Race and the schooling of black Americans. The Atlantic Monthly, 68-78.
  • Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (in press). How stereotypes influence the standardized test performance of talented African American students. In C. Jencks & M. Phillips (Eds.), Black-White Test Score Differences. Harvard Press.
  • Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1998). Stereotype threat and the test performance of academically successful African Americans. In C. Jencks & M. Phillips (Eds.), Black-White test score gap. Brookings Institution Press.
  • Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1994). Stereotype vulnerability and African-American intellectual performance. In E. Aronson (Ed.), Readings about the social animal. New York: Freeman & Co.
  • Steele, C. M., Spencer, S. J., Hummel, M., Schoem, D., Carter, K., Harber, K., & Nisbett, R. (in press). Improving minority performance: An intervention in higher education. In C. Jencks & M. Phillips (Eds.), Black-White Test Score Differences. Harvard Press.

References

External links

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