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File:SrebrenicaStone.jpg

A memorial to the victims of Srebrenica and other towns in Eastern Bosnia

The term Bosnian Genocide is used to refer either to the genocide committed by Bosnian Serb forces in Srebrenica in 1995, or to the ethnic cleansing campaign that took place throughout areas controlled by the Bosnian Serb Army during the 1992-1995 Bosnian War.[1]

In the 1990s, several authorities, in line with a minority of legal scholars -- including the leading Holocaust scholar Dr. Robert Jay Lifton -- asserted that ethnic cleansing as carried out by elements of the Bosnian Serb army was genocide. These included a resolution by the United Nations General Assembly and three convictions for genocide in German courts, (the convictions were based upon a wider interpretation of genocide than that used by international courts). [2] In 2005, the United States Congress passed a resolution declaring that "the Serbian policies of aggression and ethnic cleansing meet the terms defining genocide".[3]

However, in line with a majority of legal scholars, the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and the International Court of Justice (ICJ) have ruled that, in order for actions to be deemed genocide, there must be physical or biological destruction of a protected group and a specific intent to commit such destruction. To date, only the Srebrenica massacre has been found to be a genocide by the ICTY, a finding upheld by the ICJ.[4]

United Nations

On 18 December 1992, the United Nations General Assembly resolution 47/121 in its preamble deemed ethnic cleansing to be a form of genocide stating:

Gravely concerned about the deterioration of the situation in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina owing to intensified aggressive acts by the Serbian and Montenegrin forces to acquire more territories by force, characterized by a consistent pattern of gross and systematic violations of human rights, a burgeoning refugee population resulting from mass expulsions of defenceless civilians from their homes and the existence in Serbian and Montenegrin controlled areas of concentration camps and detention centres, in pursuit of the abhorrent policy of “ethnic cleansing”, which is a form of genocide, ...
—United Nations General Assembly.[5][6]

On 12 July 2007, in its judgement on the Jorgic v. Germany case, the European Court of Human Rights noted that:

the ICTY, in its judgments in the cases of Prosecutor v. Krstic and Prosecutor v. Kupreskic, expressly disagreed with the wide interpretation of the 'intent to destroy' as adopted by the UN General Assembly and the German courts. Referring to the principle of nullum crimen sine lege, the ICTY considered that genocide, as defined in public international law, comprised only acts aimed at the physical or biological destruction of a protected group.
—European Court of Human Rights.[7]

Leading Holocaust Scholar Termed Bosnian Genocide

The leading scholar of the Holocaust and an internationally renowned author of several books, including "The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide" and "The Genocidal Mentality: Nazi Holocaust and the Nuclear Threat", agrees that what happened to the Bosnian Muslims "merits the use of the word genocide." He is a recipient of a Nobel Lectureship, the Holocaust Memorial Award, and the Gandhi Peace Award. Since the 1960s, Dr. Lifton has been recognized internationally for his research on genocide. According to Dr. Lifton,

"What's happening there [in Bosnia] merits the use of the word genocide. There is an effort to systematically destroy an entire group. It's even been conceptualized by Serbian nationalists as so-called 'ethnic cleansing.' That term signifies mass killing, mass relocation, and that does constitute genocide."[8]

International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia

In 2001, the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) judged that the 1995 Srebrenica massacre was genocide.[9] In the unanimous ruling "Prosecutor v. Krstić", the Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), located in The Hague, reaffirmed that the Srebrenica massacre was genocide,[10] the Presiding Judge Theodor Meron stating:

By seeking to eliminate a part of the Bosnian Muslims, the Bosnian Serb forces committed genocide. They targeted for extinction the forty thousand Bosnian Muslims living in Srebrenica, a group which was emblematic of the Bosnian Muslims in general. They stripped all the male Muslim prisoners, military and civilian, elderly and young, of their personal belongings and identification, and deliberately and methodically killed them solely on the basis of their identity.[11]

In September 2006, former Bosnian Serb leader Momcilo Krajisnik was found guilty of multiple instances of crimes against humanity, but while the ICTY judges found that there was evidence that crimes committed in Bosnia constituted the criminal act of genocide (actus reus), they did not establish that the accused possessed genocidal intent, or was part of a criminal enterprise that had such an intent (mens rea).[12]

United States House and Senate resolutions

The month before the 10th anniversary of the Srebrenica Massacre, both houses of the United States Congress passed similarly worded resolutions asserting that the policies of aggression and ethnic cleansing as implemented by Serb forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1992 to 1995, including the Srebrenica Massacre, constituted genocide.

On 27 June 2005, during the 109th Congress, the United States House of Representatives passed a resolution (H. Res. 199 sponsored by Congressman Christopher Smith with 39 cosponsors) commemorating the 10th anniversary of the Srebrenica genocide.[13] The resolution, as amended, was passed with an overwhelming majority of 370 - YES votes, 1 - NO vote, and 62 - ABSENT.[14] The resolution is a bipartisan measure commemorating July 11, 1995–2005, the tenth anniversary of the Srebrenica massacre.[15] The Senate version, S.Res.134, was sponsored by Senator Gordon Smith with 8 cosponsors and was agreed to in the Senate on 22 June 2005 without amendment and with unanimous consent.[3][16] The summaries of the resolutions are identical, with the exception of the name of the house passing the resolution, and the substitution of the word executed for murdered by the House in the first clause:

Expresses the sense of the [House of Representatives]/[Senate] that:
(1) the thousands of innocent people executed at Srebrenica in Bosnia and Herzegovina in July 1995, along with all individuals who were victimized during the conflict and genocide in Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1992 to 1995, should be remembered and honored;
(2) the Serbian policies of aggression and ethnic cleansing meet the terms defining genocide;
(3) foreign nationals, including U.S. citizens, who have risked, and in some cases lost, their lives in Bosnia and Herzegovina should be remembered and honored;
(4) the United Nations (U.N.) and its member states should accept their share of responsibility for allowing the Srebrenica massacre and genocide to occur, and seek to ensure that this does not happen in future crises;
(5) it is in the U.S. national interest that the responsible individuals should be held accountable for their actions;
(6) persons indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) should be apprehended and transferred to The Hague without further delay, and countries should meet their obligations to cooperate with the ICTY; and
(7) the United States should support the independence and territorial integrity of Bosnia and Herzegovina and peace and stability in southeastern Europe.
—CRS Summary.[17][18][19]

International Court of Justice

File:Public hearing at the ICJ.jpg

Public hearing at the ICJ.

On February 26, 2007 the International Court of Justice (ICJ), in the Bosnian Genocide Case concurred with the ICTY's earlier finding that the Srebrenica massacre constituted genocide:[20]

ICJ President Rosalyn Higgins noted that there was a lot of evidence to prove that crimes against humanity and war crimes had been committed in Bosnia and Herzegovina such as widespread killings, the siege of towns, mass rapes, torture, deportation to camps and detention centres, but the ICJ did not have jurisdiction over them, because the case dealt "exclusively with genocide in a limited legal sense and not in the broader sense sometimes given to this term".[20][21][22] Moreover, the Court found "that Serbia has not committed genocide" nor "conspired to" or "incited the commission of genocide". It did however, find that Serbia had failed "to take all measures within its power to prevent genocide in Srebrenica" and to comply fully with the ICTY by failing to transfer Ratko Mladić to the custody of the ICTY in the Hague and that Serbia must in future transfer to the Hague all ICTY indicted individuals, who reside under Serbian jurisdiction.[23]

European Court of Human Rights

The Higher Regional Court of Düsseldorf, Germany, in September 1997, handed down a genocide conviction against Nikola Jorgić, a Bosnian Serb who was the leader of a paramilitary group located in the Doboj region. He was sentenced to four terms of life imprisonment for his involvement in genocidal actions that took place in regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina, other than Srebrenica.[24]

In a judgement issued on 12 July 2007, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in the Jorgic v. Germany case (Application no. 74613/01), reviewed the German court's judgements against Jorgic. In rejecting Jorgic's appeal, the ECHR affirmed that the German court's ruling was consistent with an interpretation of the Genocide Convention foreseeable at the time Jorgic committed the offence in 1992. However, the ECHR highlighted that the German court's ruling, based upon German domestic law, had interpreted the crime of genocide more broadly than and in a manner since rejected by international courts.[25] Under the wider definition that the German judiciary upheld, the ethnic cleansing carried out by Jorgić was a genocide because it was an intent to destroy the group as a social unit, and although the majority of scholars took the view that German genocide law should interpret genocide as the physical-biological destruction of the protected group, "a considerable number of scholars were of the opinion that the notion of destruction of a group as such, in its literal meaning, was wider than a physical-biological extermination and also encompassed the destruction of a group as a social unit".[26][27]

File:Sarajevo martyrs memorial cemetery 2009 2.jpg

The Martyrs' Memorial Cemetery Kovači for victims of the war in Stari Grad.

In the case of Prosecutor v. Krstic (2 August 2001), the ICTY ruled "customary international law limits the definition of genocide to those acts seeking the physical or biological destruction of all or part of the group. Hence, an enterprise attacking only the cultural or sociological characteristics of a human group in order to annihilate these elements which give to that group its own identity distinct from the rest of the community would not fall under the definition of genocide".[28] On 19 April 2004, this determination was upheld on appeal: "The Genocide Convention, and customary international law in general, prohibit only the physical or biological destruction of a human group. ... The Trial Chamber expressly acknowledged this limitation, and eschewed any broader definition. ..." although like the lower court, the appeal court also ruled that ethnic cleansing might with other evidence lead to an inference of genocidal intent.[29] On 14 January 2000, the ICTY ruled in the Prosecutor v. Kupreškić and Others case that the Lašva Valley ethnic cleansing campaign in order to expel the Bosnian Muslim population from the region was persecution, not genocide per se.[30] The ECHR noted the opinion of the International Court of Justice ruling in the Bosnian Genocide Case that ethnic cleansing is not in and of itself genocide.[5]

In reference to legal writers, the ECHR also noted: "Amongst scholars, the majority have taken the view that ethnic cleansing, in the way in which it was carried out by the Serb forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina in order to expel Muslims and Croats from their homes, did not constitute genocide. However, there are also a considerable number of scholars who have suggested that these acts did amount to genocide".[31]

The ECHR having reviewed the case and the more recent international rulings on the issue the ECHR ruled that "The Court finds that the [German] courts' interpretation of 'intent to destroy a group' as not necessitating a physical destruction of the group, which has also been adopted by a number of scholars ..., is therefore covered by the wording, read in its context, of the crime of genocide in the [German] Criminal Code and does not appear unreasonable",[32] so "In view of the foregoing, the [ECHR] concludes that, while many authorities had favoured a narrow interpretation of the crime of genocide, there had already been several authorities at the material time which had construed the offence of genocide in the same wider way as the German courts. In these circumstances, the [ECHR] finds that [Jorgic], if need be with the assistance of a lawyer, could reasonably have foreseen that he risked being charged with and convicted of genocide for the acts he had committed in 1992.",[33] and for this reason the court rejected Jorgic assertion that there had been a breach of Article 7 (no punishment without law) of the European Convention on Human Rights by Germany.[34]

European Parliament

On 15 January 2009 the European Parliament passed a resolution calling on the European Union's executive authorities to commemorate 11 July as a day of remembrance and mourning of the 1995 Srebrenica genocide, explicitly recognized as such with reference to the ICJ decision. The resolution also reiterated a number of findings including the number of victims as "more than 8,000 Muslim men and boys" executed and "nearly 25,000 women, children and elderly people were forcibly deported, making this event the biggest war crime to take place in Europe since the end of the Second World War".[35] The resolution passed overwhelmingly, on a vote of 556 to 9.

Individuals prosecuted of genocide during the Bosnian war

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File:Milosevic-karadzic-mladic-wanted-poster.jpg

Wanted poster for Slobodan Milosevic, Radovan Karadic and Ratko Mladic.

About 30 people have been indicted for participating in genocide or complicity in genocide during the early 1990s in Bosnia. To date, after several plea bargains and some convictions that were successfully challenged on appeal, two men, Vujadin Popovic and Ljubisa Beara, have been found guilty of genocide, and two others, Radislav Krstic and Drago Nikolic, have been found guilty of aiding and abetting genocide, by an international court for their participation in the Srebrenica massacre.[36][37]

Four have been found guilty of participating in genocides in Bosnia by German courts, one of whom Nikola Jorgic lost an appeal against his conviction in the European Court of Human Rights.

On 29 July 2008 the State Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina found Milenko Trifunovic, Brano Dzinic, Aleksandar Radovanovic, Milos Stupar, Slobodan Jakovljevic Branislav Medan and Petar Mitrovic guilty of genocide for their part in the Srebrenica massacre,[38][39] and on 16 October 2009 the State Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina found Milorad Trbic, a former member of the Bosnian Serb security forces, guilty of genocide for his participation in the genocide in the Srebrenica massacre.[40]

Slobodan Milosevic, the former President of Serbia and of Yugoslavia, was the most senior political figure to stand trial at the ICTY. He was charged with having committed genocide, either alone or in concert with other named members of a joint criminal enterprise. The indictment accused him of planning, preparing and executing the destruction, in whole or in part, of the Bosnian Muslim national, ethnical, racial or religious groups, as such, in territories within Bosnia and Herzegovina including Bijeljina, Bosanski Novi, Brcko, Kljuc, Kotor Varos, Prijedor, Sanski Most and Srebrenica.[41] He died during his trial, on 11 March 2006, and no verdict was returned.

The ICTY has issued a warrant for the arrest of Radovan Karadzic and Ratko Mladic on several charges including genocide. Karadzic was arrested in Belgrade on 21 July 2008, and was transferred into the ICTY custody in the Hague nine days later on 30 July.[42] To date Mladic has evaded arrest and remains at large.

Casualties

File:Srebrenica Potocari Memorial 2.JPG

Srebrenica Genocide Memorial

If a narrow definition of genocide is used, as favoured by the international courts, then during the Srebrenica massacre between 8,000 and 9,000 Bosnian Muslim (Bosniaks) men and boys were murdered and the remainder of the population (between 25,000–30,000, Bosniak women, children and elderly people) was forced to leave the area.

If a wider definition is used, then the number is much larger. For example in a statement on 23 September 2008 to the United Nations Dr Haris Silajdzic, as head of the Bosnia and Herzegovina Delegation to the United Nations, 63rd Session of the General Assembly, said that "According to the ICRC data, 200,000 people were killed, 12,000 of them children, up to 50,000 women were raped, and 2.2 million were forced to flee their homes. This was a veritable genocide and sociocide".[43] More recently in October 2009, the Research and Documentation Center in Sarajevo published its findings and found 97,214 persons dead, of whom 57,529 were soldiers.

Controversy

While the majority of international opinion accepts the findings of the international courts, there remains some disagreement about the extent of the genocide and to what degree Serbia was involved.

The Bosnian community assert that the Srebrenica massacre was just one instance of what was a broader genocide committed by Serbia.[44]

The International Court of Justice veered away from the factual and legal findings of the ICTY Appeals Chamber in the Dusko Tadic case. In the judgment delivered in July 1999, the Appeals Chamber found that the Army of Republika Srpska was "under overall control" of Belgrade and the Yugoslav Army, which meant that they had funded, equipped and assisted in coordination and planning of military operations. Had the International Court of Justice accepted this finding of the Tribunal, Serbia would have been found guilty of complicity in the Srebrenica genocide. Instead it concluded that the Appeals Chamber in the Tadic case "did not attempt to determine the responsibility of a state but individual criminal responsibility". Paradoxical as it may be, the outcome of this legal suit filed back in March 1993 arrived too early for Bosnia and Herzegovina. Radovan Karadzic arrest came over a year after the ICJ gave its judgement,[42] and Ratko Mladic, also accused of Bosnian genocide, has yet to be arrested. Slobodan Milosevic died during the trial and three trials of former Serbian officials have just started.[45]

File:Serbia in the Yugoslav Wars.png

Territories of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Croatia controlled by Serb forces 1992-1995. The War Crimes Tribual accused Milošević and other Serb leaders of "attempting to create a Greater Serbia, a Serbian state encompassing the Serb-populated areas of Croatia and Bosnia, and achieved by forcibly removing non-Serbs from large geographical areas through the commission of crimes."[46]

Although the ICTY prosecutors had access to them during the trials, some of the minutes of wartime meetings of Yugoslavia’s political and military leaders, were not made public as the ICTY accepted the Serbian argument that to do so would damage Serbia's national security. Although the ICJ could have subpoena the documents directly from Serbia, it did not do so and relied instead on those made public during the ICTY trials. Two of the ICJ judges criticised this decision in strongly worded dissents. Marlise Simons reporting on this in the New York Times, states that "When the documents were handed over [to the ICTY], the lawyers said, a team from Belgrade made it clear in letters to the tribunal and in meetings with prosecutors and judges that it wanted the documents expurgated to keep them from harming Serbia’s case at the International Court of Justice. The Serbs made no secret of that even as they argued their case for 'national security,' said one of the lawyers, adding, 'The senior people here [at the ICTY] knew about this'.". Simons continues that Rosalyn Higgins the president of the ICJ, declined to comment when asked why the full records had not been subpoenaed, saying that "The ruling speaks for itself". Diane Orentlicher, a law professor at American University in Washington, commented "Why didn’t the court request the full documents? The fact that they were blacked out clearly implies these passages would have made a difference." , and William Schabas, a professor of international law at the University of Ireland in Galway, suggested that as a civil rather than a criminal court, the ICJ was more used to relying on materials put before it than aggressively pursuing evidence which might lead to a diplomatic incident.[47]

Some commentators believe that the Srebrenica massacre was not genocide. Typically, they cite that women and children were largely spared and that only military age men were targeted.[48][49] This view is not supported by the findings of the ICJ or the ICTY.[50] According to Sonja Biserko, president of the Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia, and Edina Becirevic, the faculty of criminology and security studies of the University of Sarajevo:

Denial of the Srebrenica genocide takes many forms [in Serbia]. The methods range from the brutal to the deceitful. Denial is present most strongly in political discourse, in the media, in the sphere of law, and in the educational system.[51]

See also

References

  1. John Richard Thackrah (2008). 'The Routledge companion to military conflict since 1945, Routledge Companions Series, Taylor & Francis, 2008, ISBN 0415363543, 9780415363549. pp. 81,82 "Bosnian genocide can mean either the genocide commited by the Serb forces in Srebrenica in 1995 or the ethnic cleansing during the 1992–95 Bosnian War"
  2. European Court of Human Rights - Jorgic v. Germany Judgment, July 12, 2007. § 47,107,108
  3. 3.0 3.1 A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate regarding the massacre at Srebrenica in July 1995
  4. ECHR Jorgic v. Germany Judgment §47,112
  5. 5.0 5.1 ECHR Jorgic v. Germany Judgment, July 12, 2007. §45 citing Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro ("Case concerning the application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide") the International Court of Justice (ICJ) found under the heading of "intent and 'ethnic cleansing'" § 190
  6. A/RES/47/121 91st plenary meeting: The situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina 18 December 1992.
  7. ECHR Jorgic v. Germany Judgment, July 12, 2007. §112
  8. Toledo Blade, "Slavic Horror Termed Genocide" 28 February 1993.
  9. The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia found in Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic - Trial Chamber I - Judgment - IT-98-33 (2001) ICTY8 (2 August 2001) that genocide had been committed. (see paragraph 560 for name of group in English on whom the genocide was committed). It was upheld in Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic - Appeals Chamber - Judgment - IT-98-33 (2004) ICTY 7 (19 April 2004)
  10. ICTY "Prosecutor v. Krstic"
  11. ICTY; "Address by ICTY President Theodor Meron, at Potocari Memorial Cemetery" The Hague, 23 June 2004 [1]
  12. Staff. Momcilo Krajisnik convicted of crimes against humanity, acquitted of genocide and complicity in genocide, A press release by the ICTY in The Hague, 27 September 2006 JP/MOW/1115e
  13. Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives regarding the massacre at Srebrenica in July 1995
  14. Washington Post. "Votes Database: Bill: H RES 199" 27 June 2005
  15. Markup Committee on International Relations House of Representatives (pdf), 109th Congress, H. Res. 199 and H.R. 2601, May 26, 2005, Serial No. 109–87. p. 13
  16. Bill Number S.RES.134 for the 109th Congress
  17. Christopher Smith H.Res. 199, Expressing the Sense of the House of Representatives Regarding the Massacre at Srebrenica in July 1995. Accessed 31 January 2008
  18. CRS Summary: A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate regarding the massacre at Srebrenica in July 1995
  19. S.Res.134 A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate regarding the massacre at Srebrenica in July 1995, www.opencongress.org. Accessed 31 January 2008
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Courte: Serbia failed to prevent genocide, UN court rules". Associated Press. 2007-02-26. Archived from the original on 2007-08-10. http://web.archive.org/web/20070810091849/http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2007/02/26/international/i033600S38.DTL&type=politics.
  21. "Sense Tribunal: SERBIA FOUND GUILTY OF FAILURE TO PREVENT AND PUNISH GENOCIDE". http://www.sense-agency.com/en/stream.php?sta=3&pid=9273&kat=3.
  22. ICJ: Bosnian Genocide Case: Summary of the Judgment of 26 February 2007 [2]
  23. ICJ press release 2007/8 26 February 2007
  24. Federal High Court of Germany: Translation of Press Release into English Nr. 39 on 30 April 1999: Federal High Court makes basic ruling on genocide, Prevent Genocide International
  25. ECHR - Jorgic v. Germany Judgment, July 12, 2007. § 18,98,99
  26. ECHR Jorgic v. Germany Judgment, July 12, 2007. § 36 but also §§ 18,47,99,103,108
  27. See also "'Ethnic Cleansing' and Genocidal Intent: A Failure of Judicial Interpretation?", Genocide Studies and Prevention 5, 1 (April 2010), Douglas Singleterry
  28. ECHR Jorgic v. Germany Judgment, July 12, 2007. § 42 citing Prosecutor v. Krstic, IT-98-33-T, judgment of 2 August 2001, §§ 580
  29. ECHR Jorgic v. Germany Judgment, July 12, 2007. § 43 citing the judgment of 19 April 2004 rendered by the Appeals Chamber of the ICTY, IT-98-33-A §§ 25,33
  30. ECHR Jorgic v. Germany Judgment, July 12, 2007. § 44 citing Prosecutor v. Kupreskic and Others (IT-95-16-T, judgment of 14 January 2000), § 751
  31. European Court of Human Rights - Jorgic v. Germany Judgment, July 12, 2007. § 47
  32. ECHR Jorgic v. Germany Judgment, July 12, 2007. § 105
  33. ECHR Jorgic v. Germany Judgment, July 12, 2007. § 113
  34. ECHR Jorgic v. Germany Judgment, July 12, 2007. § 116
  35. European Parliament resolution of 15 January 2009 on Srebrenica, P6_TA(2009)0028 European Parliament - January 15, 2009.
  36. Staff. War crimes case widens 'genocide', BBC, 19 April, 2004
  37. Staff, Life for Bosnian Serbs over genocide at Srebrenica, BBC, 10 June 2010
  38. Staff Associated Press 7 Bosnian Serbs guilty of genocide in Srebrenica
  39. Staff. Bosnian Serbs jailed for genocide, BBC, 29 July 2008
  40. Staff. Bosnian Serb jailed for genocide, BBC, 16 October 2009
  41. Case No. IT-02-54-T: The Prosecutor of the Tribunal against Slobodan Milosevic, amended indictment, ICTY, 22 November 2002
  42. 42.0 42.1 Staff. Karadzic flown to Hague tribunal, BBC, 30 July 2008
  43. Statement by Dr. Haris Silajdžić Chairman of the Presidency Bosnia and Herzegovina, Head of the Delegation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. at the 63rd Session of the General Assembly on the occasion of the General Debate, Summary, 23 September 2008.
  44. van den Biesen."Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, General Concluding Observation". International Court of Justice. 24 April 2006, para. 1-12. [3]
  45. SENSE Tribunal: ICTY - THE MISSING LINK
  46. Decision of the ICTY Appeals Chamber; 18 April 2002; Reasons for the Decision on Prosecution Interlocutory Appeal from Refusal to Order Joinder; Paragraph 8
  47. Marlise Simons. Genocide Court Ruled for Serbia Without Seeing Full War Archive, New York Times, 9 April 2007
  48. The Politics of the Srebrenica Massacre, Z Net, 7 July 2007, by Edward S. Herman [4]
  49. "The real story behind Srebrenica", Globe and Mail, July 14, 2005.
  50. ICTY, Prosecutor vs Krstic, Trial Chamber Judgement, Case No. IT-98-33-T, paras 43–46. [5]
  51. Denial of genocide - on the possibility of normalising relations in the region by Sonja Biserko (the Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia) and Edina Becirevic (faculty of criminology and security studies of the University of Sarajevo).

External links

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